Vertical Structure of Extratopical cyclones-v3

Vertical Structure of Extratopical cyclones-v3 - Vertical...

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Vertical Structure of Extratopical cyclones Leila M. V. Carvalho
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Upper level charts The objective of these analyses is to identify how a baroclinic wave is observed in upper level charts and the relationships with the evolution of the extratropical cyclones. The discussion is based on the case study presented previously
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00UTC: geopotential height (black) temperature (red). Note that contour interval varies 30m for 850-700hPa, 60m for 150hPa, 120m for250 and 200hPa, and 60m for 100hPa. Temperature 4oC left, 2oC right. Shading position of the jet stream Warm advection Warm advection Cold Advection
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Click in the figure to animate the vertical structure of the trough
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Some important conclusions Stronger height gradients imply in stronger winds (winds are stronger in upper levels) Westerly winds increase with height: thermal wind equation indicates a prevailing meridional temperature gradient in lower levels, with colder air to the north (NH) V(p2) – V(p1) Cold Warm
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Conclusions -2 Patterns in lower levels are highly baroclinic and in upper levels tend to be more equivalent barotropic (why?) The horizontal advection of temperature within the frontal zone weakens with height as the wind vectors come into alignment with the isotherms. Distinct patterns of temperature in the lower stratosphere (250-100hPa): air in the troughs is warmer and air in the ridges
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The 850hPa isotherms tend to be concentrated within the frontal zone extending from the Great Plains eastward to the Atlantic seaboard and passing through the surface low To the east of the surface Low (L) Surface 00:00UTC L L
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The Tropopause: what are the differences observed in each situation? Colorado: Located near the center of the 250hPa trough Iowa: Located near the center of the 250hPa ridge Texas: Located close to the axis of the jet stream
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Answers: Located near the center of the
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