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Unformatted text preview: EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE History of Microbiology Anton Van Leeuwenhoek Dutch merchant, traded in textiles Really good at grinding magnifying lenses, but didnt teach anyone else how to so all knowledge was lost Ignaz Semmelweis Hungarian MD Wash hands in between doing an autopsy and delivering a baby, after this women deaths from childbed fever dropped Louis Pasteur Link between microbes and disease? French wines were turning sour What makes wine? Yeast There was bacteria in sour wine, showed microbes have metabolic activities Spontaneous generation- designed a different kind of flask, it was proved wrong Life comes from life Francesco Redi Took jars of raw meat and maggots would arise Jar left open- maggots Jar covered- no maggots Proved that spontaneous generation doesnt occur Robert Koch Physician First to connect specific microbe to a specific disease Anthrax- makes endospores, more commonly a disease in animals 4 postulates- sometimes difficult to show with human pathogens What is the concept of spontaneous generation? Life could arise spontaneously Recipe from creating mice Redis experiments Disease was inevitable Is it still a scientifically sound concept? No, not able to link a specific disease to a specific microbe It was proved wrong, life comes from life Pasteur &amp; Redi Epidemiology What is epidemiology? The study of how disease occurs in a population Who was John Snow? Father of modern epidemiology What causes Cholera? Cholera is a water borne pathogen that is specific to tropical areas Drinking contaminated water or eating meat What happens to those infected? after 2-3 days' intestinal colonization, these bacteria produce enough cholera toxin to cause massive accumulation of water in small intestine leading to &quot;explosive&quot; diarrhea (rice-water stools) and vomiting, which leads to dehydration and electrolyte loss; complications - coma (poor blood flow to brain) and death due to shock How did Snow determine how outbreak occurred? Mapped out where outbreaks were occurring and noticed who got cholera and who didnt. Came from a common water source, the Broad Street Pump Epidemic literally, &quot;upon the people&quot; ( epi = upon; demos = people); commonly refers to an unusually high incidence of a disease in a community (population) at one time Sudden outbreak of cases/ not usually seen Epidemics right now in the U.S.= Listeria from cantaloupe Pandemic literally, &quot;all the people&quot; ( pan = all; demos = people); indicates an epidemic involving more than one continent or a worldwide epidemic Endemic literally, &quot;in the people&quot; ( en = in; demos = people); a disease is constantly present, usually at low incidence, in a population Diseases normally found in a particular area Cholera is not endemic to New Orleans but is endemic to India, because it came from India to London Describe how source and incubation period affect the length of an epidemic:...
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- Fall '08
- dendritic cells, specific disease, Cholera toxin- causes