Exam 2 Study Guide

Exam 2 Study Guide - Exam 2 Study Guide Fall 2011 I...

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Exam 2 Study Guide Fall 2011 I. Classification II (Eukaryotes) Protists/Protozoans A. What are the common characteristics of protists? Typically single-celled No cell wall Cell membrane Move freely Ingest food Some have chloroplasts B. Know the following organisms (characteristics, where they live & what they do – good &/or bad) - Dinflagellates (Red Tide) Produce carotenoids Toxic to other marine life Some are symbionts w/coral (the symbiont is the smaller of the two and is always a beneficiary in the relationship, while the larger organism is the host and may or may not derive a benefit) Can make water look red because of their red pigment (red tide) Live in the ocean, BAD - Amoeba (Entamoeba) Free living Predatory heterotroph Soil, freshwater, marine Move via “cytoplasmic streaming” (help move cell forward and backward) If humans ingest contaminated food Entaomeba will digest host cells BAD - Cryptosporidium Transmitted via contaminated water, also live in water Cyst can escape chlorine treatment Killed 50, made 400K people sick in ‘93 outbreak Common in US BAD - Toxoplasma gondii Cat feces or undercooked meat Causes spontaneous abortions Exists in warm blooded animals (birds, cats, mice) bad especially for fetus - Plasmodium Causes malaria, aka BAD Can be dormant for months Huge losses in Africa
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Sickle-cell disease connection Carried by specific vector mosquito ALL PROTISTS DESCRIBED BAD C. What are cysts? How do they help parasitic protists? Cyst : Protective structure, which is metabolically inactive, usually brought on by deterioration of the environment. Help protists survive outside of a host, and allow them to move to new hosts they otherwise would have been able to reach and infect. Can get into the large intestine and cause sores, could be fatal. This is why clean water is so essential. D. Why are the side effects of drugs for treating infections caused by protists so harsh? They are Eukaryotic, therefore their cells are very similar to humans, and it is hard to achieve selective toxicity because what is necessary to break down protists often will also break down human cells. Also, the treatment is more uncomfortable than the infection itself, because the cells are growing rapidly Fungi Diverse Kingdom Single cell / multicellular All are heterotrophic Yeast, mushrooms, molds, lichens Decomposers Symbiotic relationship w/plants Bread, wine, beer, antibiotics Similar to animal cells B. Mycotoxins – know examples from class (helpful, harmful, deadly) - why would fungi be good resources for new antibiotics? Many types of fungi produce toxins (mycotoxins)
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Exam 2 Study Guide - Exam 2 Study Guide Fall 2011 I...

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