Study Guide 2 - Diseases Transmitted by Skin Infection...

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Diseases Transmitted by Skin Infection Background Anatomy and associated host defense factors - epidermis - outer layer of skin (keratinized) physical - barrier, continually sloughing (skin falls off, like dead skin), dry chemical - sebum (fatty acids, lipids); sweat (salt, lysozyme) cellular - normal microbiota make acids (lactic, etc.) that keep pH low - dermis - inner layer of skin physical – barrier chemical - sebaceous glands (sebum) and sweat glands (salt) cellular - phagocytes (PMN) and complement from bloodstream Epidemiology - transmission - caused by normal microbiota or exogenous microbes introduced via cuts, abrasions, burns or bites of animals or arthropods - predisposing factors - moisture, corticosteroids, immunodeficiency Skin Diseases Acne (Bacteria) - epidemiology : normal bacterial microbiota; up to 85% of adolescents suffer from acne at some time - Pathogenesis : hair follicle infection that spreads into surrounding tissue, generating an abscess ; complications - skin disfigurement (scars) - treatment : Anti-bacterial CTA treatment. Americans spend ~$1 billion/year on prescription drugs to treat acne - prevention : decrease bacterial accumulation by thorough personal hygiene and depress bacterial growth with topical peroxide-containing medications Impetigo (Bacteria) - epidemiology : this bacterial disease is highly contagious in children - pathogenesis : superficial infection leads to formation of thin-walled abscesses that look like blisters or "weeping" lesions with scabs; complications - "blood poisoning" (toxemia or septicemia ) - treatment : bacitracin salve or other antimicrobial agents resistant to bacterial enzymes that destroy penicillins - prevention : personal hygiene; avoid contact with lesions on other people Furuncle (boil) (Bacteria) - epidemiology : normal bacterial microbiota in up to 30% of normal humans - pathogenesis : infected skin follicle leads to formation of an abscess ; complications - multiple abscesses ( carbuncles ); "blood poisoning" (toxemia) due to systemic distribution of toxin or bacteria; osteomyelitis - treatment : "lance" abscess; treat with bacitracin, vancomycin or other antimicrobial agents that are resistant to bacterial enzymes that destroy penicillins . .. more info
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- prevention : personal hygiene; avoid contact with boils on other people Necrotizing Fasciitis (Bacteria) - epidemiology : (bacterium) ; according to CDC, there were fewcases in the US in 1996 and 20% were fatal, very fatal - pathogenesis : rapidly-spreading infection leads to destruction of tissues at sites of infection . .. aka Flesh-Eating Disease ; complications - formation of abscesses throughout the body and "blood poisoning" ( toxemia or septicemia ) - treatment : Antibacterial CTAs; surgery, when necessary - prevention : personal hygiene Candidiasis (Fungi) - epidemiology : this dimorphic fungus is a member of the normal microbiota; likelihood of developing disease is enhanced by chronic skin moisture, especially
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Study Guide 2 - Diseases Transmitted by Skin Infection...

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