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16
Q2.2 Solution
Typical graphs of (a) shear stress
τ
against shear strain
γ
; (b) volumetric strain
ε
vol
against
shear strain
γ
; and
(c) specific volume v against shear strain
are as
shown in main text
Figure 2.21.
In the test carried out on the initially dense sample, the shear stress gradually increases with
shear strain to a peak at P, before falling to a steady value at C which is maintained as the
shear strain is increased. The sample may undergo a very small compression at the start of
shear, but then begins to dilate. The curve of
ε
vol
vs
becomes steeper, indicating that the
rate of dilation d
vol
/d
is increasing. The slope of the curve reaches a maximum at p, but
with continued shear strain the curve becomes less steep until at c it is horizontal. When the
curve is horizontal d
vol
/d
is zero, indicating that dilation has ceased. The peak shear stress
at P coincides with the maximum rate of dilation at p. The steady state shear stress at C
corresponds to the achievement of the critical specific volume at c.
The initially loose sample displays no peak strength, but eventually reaches the same critical
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This note was uploaded on 12/28/2011 for the course CHM 4302 taught by Professor Stuartchalk during the Fall '11 term at UNF.
 Fall '11
 StuartChalk
 Analytical Chemistry, pH

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