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BiologicalMolecules160-page3 - Two common ring shapes are...

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Biological Molecules - 3 Geometric isomers share common covalent bonding, but have different shapes. The differing shape of geometric isomers can dramatically affect their biological function. (This is sometimes called the cis-trans difference.) Cis-trans changes occur when one partially hydrogenates fats, forming trans-fatty acids. Enantiomers are isomers that have the same molecular formula but are mirror images of each other. Hydrocarbons can also have variations in bonding. Carbon may make double or triple bonds as well as single bonds. The resulting compounds will be different in shape and often function. Carbon ring compounds are common in living organisms. The shape of the ring compound is important to its properties. The covalent bond angles in the ring determine the molecule's shape.
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Unformatted text preview: Two common ring shapes are the "chair" and the "boat" The major compounds of living organisms are modifications of hydrocarbons with something (very precise) added. These atoms or molecules are called functional groups, because they change how the hydrocarbon functions and gives it properties of a carbohydrate, or lipid or protein, etc. Functional Groups The functional groups are molecular fragments which, when substituted for one or more hydrogen atoms in a hydrocarbon, confer particular chemical properties to the new compound. The functional group can be said to determine the "behavior" of the molecule. Once you have learned the properties of some functional groups, the major compounds of living organisms are easy!...
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