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BiologicalMolecules160-page12 - • 4 – 22 carbons long...

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Biological Molecules - 12 If more than 2 carbon atoms are unsaturated, the fatty acid is polyunsaturated H H H H H H H O=C–C–C–C=C–C–C-C-C-C=C–C–H HO H H H H H H H H H H H In most fatty acids, the hydrogen atoms attached to the double-bonded carbons are both on one side of the carbon chain (either top or bottom). Such fatty acids are called cis-fatty acids. In trans-fatty acids, the hydrogen atoms attached to the carbons forming the double bond are on opposite sides of the carbon chain. When fats are hydrogenated, trans-fatty acids tend to form. We process trans- fatty acids much the same way as saturated fatty acids. Let's look at ways that fatty acids are different: 1. Length of chain in fatty acid
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Unformatted text preview: • 4 – 22 carbons long • Short chains are more soluble • Short chains are more easily broken down • Short chains oxidize more easily 2. Degree of saturation • Saturated • Monounsaturated • Polyunsaturated • Most plant fats tend to be unsaturated, but fats from tropical plants tend to be very saturated • Fish oils tend to be unsaturated (from cold water and salt water fish). Other animal fats tend to be saturated 3. Liquid vs solid • Short chains and unsaturated chains are liquid at room temperature (the double bonds distort the molecules so they don't fit close together) • Saturated chains are solid (denser) because chains fit together better...
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