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BiologicalMolecules160-page17 - 3 The polypeptide chain is...

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Biological Molecules - 17 Some amino acids have R groups that are polar (so they are hydrophilic), some R groups are nonpolar (and hydrophobic), some have acidic side chains (generally with a negative charge) and some are basic. One, cysteine, contains sulfur in the R group, so cysteines can form disulfide bonds (disulfide bridges) Amino acids are joined together by a dehydration synthesis of amino/carboxyl groups forming a peptide bond. How do amino acids join to make a protein? 1. A protein starts as a chain of amino acids, called a polypeptide 2. Amino acids are joined by the peptide bond, via dehydration synthesis to form the polypeptide
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Unformatted text preview: 3. The polypeptide chain is referred to as the primary structure of the protein. 4. The specific amino acids in the polypeptide chain will determine its ultimate conformation, or shape, and hence, its function. Even one amino acid substitution in the bonding sequence of a polypeptide can dramatically alter the final protein's shape and ability to function. Peptide Bond How do polypeptides vary? 1. Number of amino acids in the chain: 50—1000 or so 2. Which kind of amino acids are in the chain (of the 20 types) 3. How many of each kind of amino acid 4. The bonding order or sequence of amino acids...
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