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Cells160-page3 - Brief Review of Domains and Kingdoms –...

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Cell - 3 Cell Types and Living Organisms Every organism is composed of one of two fundamental types of cells: prokaryotic or eukaryotic. The cells of Prokaryotic organisms do not have their genetic material enclosed within a membrane-bounded structure (no nucleus). Their DNA is concentrated in a region of the cell called the nucleoid. Prokaryotic cells also do not have membrane-bounded organelles within the cytoplasm of their cells. The DNA of the cells of eukaryotic organisms is contained within a nucleus. The nucleus is surrounded by the cytoplasm of the cell, much of which is the semi-fluid matrix, the cytosol, in which organelles are suspended. As you read in chapter one of your text, the world of life is currently organized into three domains and several Kingdoms. Two of the domains, Archaea and Bacteria are prokaryotic. The Domain, Eukarya, whose members are composed of Eukaryotic cells, is comprised of the Protista (an alliance of several candidate Kingdoms) and the Kingdoms Fungi, Plantae and Animalia.
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Unformatted text preview: Brief Review of Domains and Kingdoms – The Diversity of Life As mentioned in the introductory chapter, the world's organisms are currently organized into Domains and Kingdoms. Two of the Domains, Bacteria and Archaea, have a prokaryotic cell organization. The Domain, Eukarya, is comprised of four Kingdoms: Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia, whose members have a eukaryotic cell organization. The Domains and Kingdoms are also distinguished from each other on the basis of how they obtain the organic molecules needed for life. Autotrophs are organisms that can manufacture their organic molecules from inorganic carbon sources. Heterotrophs require organic sources of carbon for their organic molecules. Current research indicates that the Kingdom, Protista, is likely to be separated into several kingdoms, as will the Bacteria and Archaea. In brief: Bacteria Archaea Protista Plantae Fungi Animalia...
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