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Cells160-page18 - Some bacteria have chlorophyll and can...

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Cell - 18 Chromoplasts Amyloplasts Amyloplasts Amyloplasts store starch, which is unpigmented. (There is a general term, leucoplast, which means unpigmented plastid, but is not as descriptive as amyloplast, which identifies what is stored in the plastid). Amyloplasts are also called starch grains, but not by biology students who know the correct term. Amyloplasts vary in size depending on how much starch is being deposited. They are also species specific in overall design; a specialist can identify the source of starch grains. Amyloplasts are abundant in the storage cells of most plants. Chloroplasts Chloroplasts contain the pigments, including chlorophyll, and the enzymes necessary for photosynthesis, the process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy, which is used to manufacture carbohydrate (fuel) molecules. Chloroplasts are found in plants and in some protists. Chloroplasts are not found in heterotrophic organisms.
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Unformatted text preview: Some bacteria have chlorophyll and can photosynthesize, but lack the membrane-bounded chloroplasts. Some bacteria also have photosynthetic pigments other than chlorophyll. Typical Chloroplast Structure: The plant chloroplast is a double-layered membrane bounded organelle, with an inner compartment that contains more membranes. The outer and inner membranes are smooth, and oval shaped in higher plants. • The internal membranes are disc like in structure and called thylakoids. These flattened discs stack up to form grana. The photosynthetic pigments are arranged on the grana. • The fluid in which the grana are suspended is called the stroma This distinctive structure is important for the multiple processes, which occur during photosynthesis, a process that we will discuss in great detail later. Like mitochondria, chloroplasts contain unique DNA and may have evolved similarly as endosymbionts....
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