Chemistry160-page9

Chemistry160-page9 - electronegativity, the electrons of...

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Chemistry Concepts - 9 Double covalent bond: The 2 atoms are sharing 2 electron pairs Triple covalent bond: The 2 atoms are sharing 3 electron pairs Electronegativity and Polar and Non-Polar Bonds As stated, in a covalent bond, the electrons of the bonding atoms are shared rather than transferred, so that no charged atoms or ions are formed. We also mentioned that atoms tend to form covalent bonds when a transfer of electrons would result in too great of a charge imbalance between the atom's positively charged nucleus and its negatively charged electron field. All atoms, however, have a property, called electronegativity, which is a measure of how strongly the protons of the atom's nucleus attract and hold electrons. The electronegativity of all atoms is not the same. Atoms that form ionic bonds typically have a reasonably high electronegativity. When covalent bonds are formed between atoms which have similar
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Unformatted text preview: electronegativity, the electrons of the atoms are equally shared and the bond is said to be nonpolar (with no charge attraction). When covalent compounds are formed between atoms which have very different electronegativities, the electrons of the two atoms are not shared equally. The electrons that are spinning around both atoms will be attracted to the atom which has the stronger electronegativity, so that the electrons spend more time closer to the nucleus of that atom than in the field of the atom with a weaker electronegativity. A compound (or molecule) formed by the unequal sharing will have one end functionally slightly negative (the end with the atom having a strong attraction for electrons) and the other end of the molecule slightly positive, resulting in a polar covalent bond and molecule....
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