Biotechnology - 1 We have discussed ways in which the structure of DNA can be changed in individuals through mutation, and how DNA changes from generation to generation through recombination and independent assortment during meiosis and sexual reproduction. For thousands of years humans have used selective breeding in agriculture, horticulture and what was once called "animal husbandry" to obtain and maintain desired inheritable traits with many species of plants and animals. In this sense, humans manipulated genes for thousands of years before we had any knowledge about what a "gene" is. We have taken advantage of the capabilities of many organisms to manufacture foods and beverages we like: yogurt beer, wine and cheese are all examples of natural "biotechnology" which produces things we humans find useful. Drugs, such as penicillin are products of fungi, used for human benefit. The streptomycin drugs are bacterial derivatives. Penicillium
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