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DNATechnology160-page14 - and perhaps in the future(which...

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Biotechnology - 14 Making Molecules One outcome of DNA technology is that the desired DNA can be used to manufacture needed molecules, such as humulin, clotting factors, interleukin-2, tumor necrosis factors, and a number of vaccines for human health. Although bacteria, and especially E coli, are used most, some products are made from incorporating the genes into yeast cells or even mammal cells. Genetic Screening. Genetic screening is used to detect a number of genetic disorders, such as Huntington's, Tay-Sach's disease, sickle cell anemia and cystic fibrosis. There are a number of techniques used, from blood tests that can identify certain problems, such as phenylketonuria, to more sophisticated analysis. Prenatal screening can help potential parents determine the risks of genetic disorders in their children,
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Unformatted text preview: and perhaps, in the future (which is today) apply biotechnology to correct gene defects in the embryo. In the1980s researchers first succeeded in deactivating a good gene in mice so they could study the effects of a defective version. This has proved useful in studying specific genetic defects. This process is often called genetic knockouts. For example, such mice were used to study cystic fibrosis, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's and some cancers. DNA Arrays DNA technology can also be used to produce a DNA microarray assay that results in a gene microarray or biochip, a small but discrete collection of gene fragments on a chip. With DNA technology, these can be automated and give information about thousands of genes, all located on one array or biochip....
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