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Unformatted text preview: is useful energy. Much of the energy released when ATP is broken is in the form of less useful heat energy. So in one sense, we can say life is about making and breaking ATP. ATP can also work by transferring its third phosphate to the reacting molecule, energizing that reactant. When you are transferring phosphates (P ) from one thing to another it's called phosphorylation, a good term to know. Electron Carriers Many coupled reactions involve electron transfers using series of energy carrier molecules embedded in membranes. They are often called electron transport chains. These electron transfer chains include a number of nucleotides, such as NAD + , NADP + and FAD, along with many other kinds of molecules including proteins and quinones....
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- Spring '10