Energy160-page7 - is useful energy Much of the energy...

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Energy Flow in Cells - 7 The product of the hydrolysis of ATP is a molecule of ADP and a free phosphate molecule (P i ). ATP may "energize" a molecule by transferring the ATP phosphate to the molecule, so that the molecule has a more favorable bonding arrangement for its activity. The exergonic process of cell respiration makes ATP using energy obtained by "burning" or oxidizing fuel molecules, like glucose, to bond a Phosphate (P ) to the nucleotide ADP. Once synthesized, the ATP is broken to release its energy in the reactions to which it is coupled. This is a constant process in cells. About 88 pounds of ATP is made and broken in 24 hours just for basic cell maintenance. A cell has only about a one-minute supply of ATP at any given time. The unstable ATP cannot be “stockpiled”. Keep in mind, however, that not all of that 88 pounds
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Unformatted text preview: is useful energy. Much of the energy released when ATP is broken is in the form of less useful heat energy. So in one sense, we can say life is about making and breaking ATP. ATP can also work by transferring its third phosphate to the reacting molecule, energizing that reactant. When you are transferring phosphates (P ) from one thing to another it's called phosphorylation, a good term to know. Electron Carriers Many coupled reactions involve electron transfers using series of energy carrier molecules embedded in membranes. They are often called electron transport chains. These electron transfer chains include a number of nucleotides, such as NAD + , NADP + and FAD, along with many other kinds of molecules including proteins and quinones....
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This note was uploaded on 12/29/2011 for the course BIO 151 taught by Professor Edwards during the Spring '10 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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