Principles of Evolution - 1 We have seen in this course that recombination, segregation of alleles, and independent assortment of homologous chromosomes during meiosis results in the variation that occurs among individuals in populations. We have seen, too, that mutation is a source of increasing variation within populations. Each individual's phenotype depends on how the alleles he or she inherits interact in gene expression. Some inheritance patterns, such as multiple alleles of a single gene, and the continuous variation resulting from polygenic inheritance, are observed only within the framework of population genetics. We have also learned that the frequency of a gene (or specifically, an allele) affects its appearance in populations. For example, in human blood types, B is a co-dominant allele, though not common within most populations, so that O and A phenotypes are much more abundant. In the next few lectures we will look at variations that appear within populations
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