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GeneRegulation160-page14 - genes can be suppressed When...

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Gene Regulation - 14 Cancer and Gene Regulation Cancer is a disease of uncontrolled and invasive cell reproduction. The current estimates are that a third of the children born now will get some form of cancer in their lifetime. Lung cancer is still a major killer, and the cause of most lung cancers is straightforward: smoking. The three most common cancers are breast cancer (an assortment of cancers), prostate cancer and colon cancer. One in eight will get breast cancer. Almost any male who lives long enough will have prostate cancer. Some cancers develop when the gene regulators are defective, and in all cancers, gene expression is defective. For example, normal cell division has a number of checkpoint controls that ensure that division proceeds correctly. Like everything else, the checkpoint molecules are coded for by genes, and genes can mutate and
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Unformatted text preview: genes can be suppressed. When checkpoint controls go awry, abnormal division results. Accumulated mutations are a factor in aging and may result cancer. We don't have all the answers. Cancer cells have abnormal plasma membranes and abnormal cytoplasm. Cancer cells divide rapidly and ignore overcrowding inhibition signals. They can make masses of cells called tumors. Cancer cells promote angiogenesis – new blood vessel development that "feeds" the growing tumors. Once cell controls are not in effect, rapidly dividing cancer cells lose normal positioning and adhesion properties, too. Cancer cells can metastasize – migrate to new areas of the body and start growths in different tissues. Spread of cancer makes it more difficult to treat....
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