Mitosis160-page4

Mitosis160-page4 - The alternative forms that genes can...

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Cell Reproduction: Mitosis - 4 A display of homologous chromosome pairs is called a karyotype, as shown above. The human karyotype has 23 pairs of chromosomes, 22 pairs of autosomes and 1 pair of sex-determining chromosomes. In contrast to the autosomes, the sex- determining chromosomes do not physically match. Cells that contain pairs of homologous chromosomes are called diploid. For humans, the diploid number of chromosomes is 46. These 46 chromosomes are comprised of 23 homologous pairs of chromosomes. Each pair is physically similar and has equivalent genetic information. As we shall discuss later, the genes on homologous chromosomes do not have to be identical (although they can be). We know for example, that you can inherit either brown eyes or blue eyes; a tongue that curls, or one that cannot curl.
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Unformatted text preview: The alternative forms that genes can take are called alleles. Inheritance looks at how these pieces of DNA interact to produce the traits expressed in individuals. Homologous chromosomes literally pair up and are separated during the process of meiosis, which will be discussed soon. Cells that have just one of each homologous pair of chromosomes are haploid (half of diploid) and contain half the number of chromosomes. Remember: "Sister" Chromatids are not pairs; they are the two identical parts of one duplicated chromosome. You must make this distinction! The pairs are the homologous chromosomes. Homologous pairs of chromosomes function together during meiosis, as we shall discuss. All chromosomes function independently in mitosis....
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