Gene Expression – DNA to Protein - 1 As we have just discussed, the structure of DNA provides a mechanism for self-replication. The structure of DNA also reveals the mechanism for storing the genetic information that determines what a cell is and how it functions: the genetic code. We will look now at how the information stored in molecules of DNA is used to direct the synthesis of proteins (or more properly, polypeptides). It is also important to know how genes are regulated in organisms, so that the appropriate DNA is expressed in each cell, a subject to be addressed a bit later. Learning What a Gene Does – Garrod's Contribution In 1909 Archibald Garrod postulated that inherited diseases were caused by the inability of the individual to synthesize a particular enzyme. He was correct; many of our metabolic disorders are caused by not having a specific enzyme. However, it took decades of research to "prove" that a gene's function is to provide instructions on how to synthesize a specific protein, and that metabolic pathways
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