Gene Expression – DNA to Protein - 11 Protein Synthesis – The Process of Translation Once we have a final mRNA transcript, the mRNA is moved from the nucleus of the cell to the cytoplasm where is attaches to the small subunit of a ribosome and we are ready for the process of translation. Translation is where the information coded in DNA molecules is interpreted and translated to direct the actual synthesis of proteins. Translation also involves Initiation, Elongation and Termination. Amino Acid Attachment Prior to translation, one additional activity must occur: Amino acids must be attached to their appropriate tRNA molecules. The process of Amino acid attachment involves ATP and enzymes specific for each type of amino acid. Both the shape and charge of the tRNA molecules and the amino acids are important for the correct recognition and attachment. Although theoretically there should be 61 different tRNAs, one for each triplet code word other than the 3 stop triplets, there are only about 45. As mentioned,
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