Gene Expression – DNA to Protein - 15 Changing the Genetic Message - Mutation Each gene is a precise combination of DNA. Anything that affects the structure of a chromosome, the structure of DNA, the number of chromosomes typical for a species, or affects the ability of DNA to be transcribed accurately, is known as a mutation. Although the processes of DNA replication and RNA transcription are remarkable in their accuracy, sometimes mistakes occur. Mutations occur naturally, caused by errors in DNA duplication, errors in processing DNA, such as in transcription of DNA to RNA, and errors in meiosis and mitosis. Physical damage and chemical damage can induce mutations as well, and are used by researchers to study mutations Although it seems that we emphasize harmful effects that mutations can cause, many good variations also arise from mutations and are passed on within populations. Without such variation, populations would not be able to respond to changing environments and we probably would not have the remarkable array of
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This note was uploaded on 12/29/2011 for the course BIO 151 taught by Professor Edwards during the Spring '10 term at SUNY Stony Brook.