Intra-household AllocationIf all household members not treated equally, e.g., women get less thanmen, girls less than boys or if children and the elderly systematically worseoff than other household members, then social welfare is overstated andinequality is understated.Where does evidence of biases in intra-household allocation come from,e.g., demography/census data, We find significantly more men than women(relative to what we would expect on biological grounds) in certain partsof the world (e.g. South Asia, East Asia). The missing women (Sen etc.)taken as evidence of gender discrimination.Also in demographic data, we find big differences between male and fe-male mortality rates in early life and lower female life expectancy – mayhelp to explain skewed sex ratios.In unconstrained populations, more males survive early life but have shorterlife expectancy. This gives us male to female ratio in the overall populationof around 0.95 (105 females for every 100 males). In contrast, China has a
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