Jelena Mamčenko Operating Systems Lecture Notes on Operating Systems 53 supported it. Windows 98 introduced a utility to convert existing hard disks from FAT16 to FAT32 without loss of data. In the NT line, support for FAT32 arrived in Windows 2000. Windows 2000 and Windows XP can read and write to FAT32 filesystems of any size, but the format program on these platforms can only create FAT32 filesystems up to 32 GB. Thompson and Thompson (2003) write  that "Bizarrely, Microsoft states that this behavior is by design." Microsoft's knowledge base article 184006  indeed confirms the limitation and the by design statement, but gives no rationale or explanation. Peter Norton's opinion  is that "Microsoft has intentionally crippled the FAT32 file system." The maximum possible size for a file on a FAT32 volume is 4 GiB minus 1 B (2 32-1 bytes). For most users, this has become the most nagging limit of FAT32 as of 2005, since video capture and editing applications can easily exceed this limit, as can the system swap file. Third party support
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