Jelena Mamčenko Operating Systems Lecture Notes on Operating Systems 66 (IPC) as files; and the use of a large number of small programs that can be strung together through a command line interpreter using pipes, as opposed to using a single monolithic program that includes all of the same functionality. These concepts are known as the Unix philosophy. Under Unix, the "operating system" consists of many of these utilities along with the master control program, the kernel. The kernel provides services to start and stop programs, handle the file system and other common "low level" tasks that most programs share, and, perhaps most importantly, schedules access to hardware to avoid conflicts if two programs try to access the same resource or device simultaneously. To mediate such access, the kernel was given special rights on the system and led to the division between user-space and kernel-space . The microkernel tried to reverse the growing size of kernels and return to a system in which most tasks were completed by smaller utilities. In an era when a "normal" computer consisted of a
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