Final Nanomedicine

Final Nanomedicine - Christian 1 Review Nanomedicine: Drug...

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Review Nanomedicine: Drug Delivery, Tissue Engineering, and Nanosurgery Jason Christian Department of Nanotechnology – University of Kansas 17 May 2007 INTRODUCTION The study, manipulation, and engineering of devices and structures less than 100 nanometers have become known as nanotechnology. As particles become nano-sized, they exhibit unique chemical, biological, electrical, and mechanical properties unlike their normal macroscopic state. Scientists of engineering, electronics, physics, chemistry, and biology are collaborating to discover a wide variety of applications of nanotechnology. Recently, much attention has been devoted toward using nanotechnology to improve health care, and the medical application of nanotechnology has become known as nanomedicine. In the near future, nanotechnology will revolutionize health care, as nanomedicine has the potential to cure diseases and repair tissues by manipulating individual cells at the molecular level. Three important aspects of nanomedicine— drug delivery, tissue engineering, and nanosurgery—are being studied with intense determination. This paper reviews current nanomedicine advances in these three areas along with citing potential applications for the future. DRUG DELIVERY The limitations of current drug-delivering systems include suboptimal bioavailability, limited effective targeting, potential cytotoxicity, and long, frequent treatments are often required. Nano-scale drug-delivery devices called nanocarriers overcome these limitations. Nanocarriers are also able to maximize therapeutic activity while minimizing toxic side effects [2] and target specific cells rather than tissues because their unique properties allow for easy surface functionalization. Functional groups may be placed on the nanocarrier to increase or decrease solubility [3], increase immunocompatibility [4], encourage cellular uptake, and determine the drug’s final destination. The nano-size character of the nanocarrier also allows for easy penetration of cellular membranes, including the blood brain barrier of the central nervous system [1]. There are several different types of nanocarriers being used as drug-delivery devices: polymeric micelles, liposomes, and dendrimers (Fig. 1). Polymeric micelle A polymeric micelle is a spherical conglomeration of amphiphilic molecules, such as cholesterol. In an aqueous environment, the molecules form a tight ball with the hydrophobic groups on the inside and the hydrophilic groups on the outside (Fig 1B). The reverse occurs in a non-aqueous environment. Micelles ranging from 50 nm to 220 nm [5], [6], encapsulate non-water soluble drugs to be administered intravenously [7]. Christian 1
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Seow [5] synthesizes an amphiphilic cholesterol-grafted molecule called poly(N-isopropyl-acrylamide-co- N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co- undecenoic acid). Using a membrane dialysis method, the polymer assembles into a micelle and effectively traps the highly non-polar anticancer drug, paclitaxel (Taxol),
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2008 for the course CHEM 627 taught by Professor Willhite during the Spring '08 term at Kansas.

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Final Nanomedicine - Christian 1 Review Nanomedicine: Drug...

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