MCCh4[2]-2 - Consciousness Chapter 4 Consciousness Personal...

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Consciousness Chapter 4
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Consciousness Personal awareness of mental activities, internal sensations, and the external environment. Subjective experience of consciousness is continuous William James-Stream of Consciousness
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Biological and Environmental Clocks Circadian rhythms- a cycle or rhythm that is roughly 24 hours long. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN)- a cluster of neurons in the hypothalamus that governs the timing of circadian rhythms Environmental cues
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Sleep Electroencephalograph (EEG)- graphic record of brain activity that produces brain waves Two basic types of sleep REM sleep- rapid-eye-movement- called active sleep or paradoxical sleep. It is associated with heightened body and brain activity during which dreaming consistently occurs. NREM- non-rapid-eye-movement- referred to as quiet sleep because the body’s physiological functions and brain activity slow down
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Onset of sleep Beta brain waves- produced by the brain when we are awake. They are small and fast in nature. Alpha brain waves- larger and slower. Produced by the brain when we are asleep. Hypnagogic hallucinations- vivid sensory phenomena that occur during the onset of sleep
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Sleep Stages NREM sleep (first 50-70 minutes) Stage 1 NREM Theta waves Slower frequency and greater amplitude Stage 2 NREM Theta waves Sudden increase in wave frequency
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Sleep Stages Stage 3 < 50% delta waves Slowest frequency and highest amplitude Stage 4 > 50% delta waves Difficult to wake sleepers
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REM Sleep Rapid-Eye-Movement Sleep = REM sleep Rapid eye movement; dreaming Stage 1-4: Non-REM Sleep Lack of rapid eye movement; little dreaming Dreams: Non-REM versus REM Sleep Developmental Changes in REM Sleep
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Figure 4.2 The First 90 Minutes of Sleep From wakefulness to the deepest sleep of stage 4 NREM, the brain’s activity, measured by EEG recordings, progressively diminishes, as demonstrated by larger and slower brain waves. The four NREM stages occupy the first 50 to 70 minutes of sleep. Then, in a matter of minutes, the brain cycles back to smaller, faster brain waves, and the sleeper experiences the night’s first episode of dreaming REM sleep, which lasts 5 to 15 minutes. During the rest of the night, the sleeper continues to experience 90-minute cycles of alternating NREM and REM sleep. Source: Based on Carskadon & Dement (2005).
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Beyond the first 90 minutes We cycle back and forth between NREM and REM sleep all night Each sleep cycle lasts about 90 minutes
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Figure 4.3 The 90-Minute Cycles of Sleep During a typical night, you experience five 90-minute cycles of alternating NREM and REM sleep. The deepest stages of NREM sleep, stages 3 and 4, occur during the first two 90-minute cycles. Dreaming REM sleep episodes become progressively longer as the night goes on. Sleep position shifts, indicated by the dots, usually occur immediately before and after REM episodes. Source: Based on Hobson (2002).
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Do we need sleep? Sleep deprivation studies
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This note was uploaded on 12/28/2011 for the course PSY 102 taught by Professor Ms.wallace during the Fall '11 term at Montgomery College.

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MCCh4[2]-2 - Consciousness Chapter 4 Consciousness Personal...

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