28 - KNH 232 NOTES Cognitive development o Brain continues...

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KNH 232 NOTES: 1/28/10 Cognitive development o Brain continues to develop after birth; neural connections depend on stimulation form the environment and social experiences o First three years are most important for brain development o Talking, reading aloud, exposing them to touch, taste, sights, smells, exploration of surroundings Nutritional development o Breast feeding is recommended for at least the fist six months o New foods should be introduced one at a time to avoid overwhelming them with too many new tastes and guard against allergic reactions o Good eating habits develop at a very young age, balanced meals should be encouraged o Children should not be forced to clean their plates, but rather to try one bite Physical activity o Kids today are more sedentary than ever before o In the last 25 years, there has been a 54% increase in obesity among children ages 6-11 and a 98% increase in super-obesity (risk factors evident) o By age 8, 40% of children have one risk factor for heart disease and 1 in 4 are overfat o Computers, video games, TV, and working parents have kept children from going out to play o Consistent regular activity lowers risk for chronic disease, develops good lifelong habits, builds self-confidence and feelings of accomplishment o Encouraging sports participation can develop good motor skills, social interaction, and ensure at least a few days of activity o But activities must be fun to children and not intimidating or overwhelming to foster a desire for lifelong activity Education o Educational, age-appropriate toys are recognized as a valuable tool for learning o Should not be so gender-specific that they limit development, but should reflect what the children are most comfortable with o Pre-schools and kindergarten today have pre-assessments and readiness tests as well as specific criteria for successfully moving on o Low income children who attend a quality preschool rather than day care have a higher rate of completion of high school, which also translates to better health Socialization o Androgyny- the balance of masculine and feminine traits within an individual o Children who are socialized in an androgynous way tend to develop better mental health than those stuck in more stereotypical roles
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o Ex. A female may value the importance of fostering relationships and be nurturing, but also she is an independent, autonomous problem-solver. A male may demonstrate physical aggressiveness but is also sensitive Nurturing o Second step of hierarchy of needs o Safety and security- this allows infants and children to thrive o Holding, rocking, wrapping securely in a blanket give infants a sense of safety o Looking at children, responding to them, giving them your attention fosters a safe, secure feeling in children Family o This is the child’s first experience with a social structure o Perceptions, biases, and assumptions are usually based on the family experience o Structure, boundaries, and discipline are necessary for healthy
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This note was uploaded on 12/29/2011 for the course KNH 245 taught by Professor Abigailterry during the Spring '10 term at Miami University.

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28 - KNH 232 NOTES Cognitive development o Brain continues...

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