102Chapter7 - Chapter 7: Human Populations 7.1 Population...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 7: Human Populations 7.1 Population Growth • Human populations grew slowly until relatively recently Population Growth • Until the Middle Ages, human populations were held in check by diseases, famines and wars, and thus grew very slowly. – It took all of human history until 1800 to reach 1 billion. – 150 years to reach 3 billion – 12 years to go from 5 to 6 billion – Human population tripled during the twentieth century. • “Natural Population Control” = Disease, Population Growth • 1 billion: 1810 • 2 billion: 1925 Doubling Time 115 years • 3 billion: 1959 • 4 billion: 1974 Doubling Time 52 years • 5 billion: 1987 • 6 billion: 1999 Doubling Time 40 years • 7 billion: 2012 Population Growth • World War II (1939-45) killed about 60 million people in 6 years (27,000/day) • Global population 2.3 billion 1940 • Global population 2.5 billion 1950 • Population growth 20,000,000 per year • Population growth 55,000 per day – 2x War Death Rate • At no time did the war offset population growth for more than a few days 7.2 Perspectives On Population Growth • Does environment or culture control human populations? • Technology can increase carrying capacity for humans • Population growth could bring beneFts 7.3 Many Factors Determine Population Growth • How many of us are there? – Even today we only have estimates – Past population figures are crude 7.3 Many Factors Determine Population Growth • Life span and life expectancy describe our potential longevity – Much of the change is reduced infant mortality • Living longer has Limits To Growth • Thomas Malthus (1798) argued human populations tend to increase exponentially while food production is plentiful. – Humans multiply to use available food supply and are vulnerable to collapse. – Human population only stabilized by “positive checks” • “Positive” = “Actively Opposing,” not Necessarily “Desirable” – Humans unlikely to voluntarily reduce birth rates. Karl Marx • Population growth is a symptom rather than a root cause of poverty and other social problems. • Real causes of these problems are exploitation and oppression. – The way to slow population growth and alleviate many social problems is through social change. Malthus and Marx Today • Neo-Malthusians - Believe we are approaching, or have already surpassed, the earth’s carrying capacity. – We should make over-population issues our first priority. • Neo-Marxists - Believe eliminating oppression and poverty through social change is the only solution to the population problem. – Wealth and resource distribution must be addressed. 7.4 Ideal Family Size Is Culturally And Economically Dependent • Many factors increase our desire for children – Labor – Old Age Support – Status – Love 7.5 A Demographic Transition Can Lead To Stable Population Size • Economic and social development influence birth and death rates • There are reasons to be optimistic about population • Many people remain pessimistic about population 7.6 Family Planning Gives Us 7....
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102Chapter7 - Chapter 7: Human Populations 7.1 Population...

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