102Chapter3 - Chapter 3 Matter, Energy, And Life Matter Is...

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Chapter 3 Matter, Energy, And Life
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Matter Is Made Of Atoms, Molecules, And Compounds Atom: simplest building block of chemicals Element: a material composed of identical atoms Compound: a combination of atoms in a fixed arrangement and proportion Molecule: The simplest chemical unit of a compound (O2, H2O, CH4, C6H12O6 etc.) Many materials (NaCl) don’t have molecules
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Chemical Formulas Most Elements have symbols that are common sense: H (Hydrogen), Si (Silicon), etc. Some, known in ancient times, have symbols from Latin: Fe ( Ferrum = Iron), Au ( Aurum = Gold), Na ( Natrium = lye, for Sodium) C6H12O6 = Glucose = 6 Carbon, 12 Hydrogen, 6 Oxygen SiO2 = Quartz = 2 Oxygen for each Silicon
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Electrical Charge Is An Important Chemical Characteristic Atoms contain three kinds of particles: Protons (+) in the nucleus. Number of protons determines what an element is Neutrons (0) in the nucleus. Bind the nucleus together Electrons (-) orbiting the nucleus Group together into shells This is what interacts with other atoms Atoms can gain or lose electrons and become electrically charged (Ions)
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Chemical Bonds Hold Molecules Together Ionic: Ions of opposite charge attract each other. Example: NaCl, most minerals Covalent: Atoms share electrons with neighbors. Example: Most carbon chemicals Metallic: Electrons wander freely between atoms. Positive atoms held together by negative electron “glue” Hydrogen: H and O in water molecules
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Chemical Bonds Hold Molecules Together Ionic bonding holds most rocks and minerals together Covalent bonding holds living things together Metallic bonding holds industrial civilization together Hydrogen bonding gives water its solvent and heat-storing capacity
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Elements Of Life C, H, O, N, P, S are principal elements of life Some elements like C can share more than one electron with a neighbor (multiple bonding) Some elements like Fe and S can gain or lose electrons in more than one way These versatile atoms can be used for Energy storage
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102Chapter3 - Chapter 3 Matter, Energy, And Life Matter Is...

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