6_yc - 40 Tobacco mosaic 50

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烟草病害 ± 我国记载的烟草病害有近40种。 ± 在烟草苗床期,炭疽病危害最重,其次是立 枯病和猝倒病; ± 在大田生长期, 花叶病 黑胫病 发生最普 病,危害最严重。 ± 在高温高湿的烟草种植区,青枯病常严重发 生,并造成毁灭性危害。 ± 此外,赤星病、蛙眼病、白粉病、根结线虫 病等在局部地区也造成一定危害。
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± 烟草花叶病在世界各产烟区均有发生,以西欧烟 区发病较为严重而且普遍。 ± 我国烟区东北三省、云南、福建、湖北、湖南、 四川普遍发生,但以 东北三省、云南和湖北鄂西 发生最重 ± 烟草花叶病对烟叶造成的损失,因烟株受侵时期 而有所不同。如果在移栽前后被侵染,烟株不能 正常发育,植株不能及时开秸开片,损失可达50% 左右,旺长期感病对产量影响较小,现蕾期受害 对产量和质量影响不明显。 烟草花叶病 Tobacco mosaic
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症状 ± 感染烟草花叶病毒(TMV)的植株的典型症状是花 叶,最初在嫩叶上发生脉明,即沿脉的组织变成淡 绿色,以后形成局部枯死的或失绿的环斑,几天后 就形成 花叶 ,即叶片色泽浓淡不均。 ± 病毒侵入后在叶片内大量增殖,使部分组织细胞增 多或增大,致使叶片厚薄不匀,皱缩扭曲呈畸形, 缺刻较深,严重时叶尖呈鼠尾状。 ± 早期发病烟株节间缩短,植株矮化,生长缓慢,重 病株的花变形,蒴果小而皱缩,种子多数不能发 芽。接近成熟的植株染病后,只在顶叶及杈叶上表 现花叶,有时有1 3个顶部叶片不表现花叶,但出 现坏死大斑块。
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± 由黄瓜花叶病毒(CMV)引致的疱斑花叶病,初期症 状也是叶脉透明,几天后变为花叶,叶片变窄、扭 曲,表皮茸毛脱落,失掉光泽。有的病叶粗糙,发 脆如革质状,叶基变长,侧翼变狭变薄,叶尖细 长。有的病叶叶缘常向上卷曲,时常出现黄绿或深 绿病斑,这是一个特征。 ± 受马铃薯Y病毒(Potato virus, PVY)侵染的烟草, 发病初期新叶上也出现脉明症状,其后形成系统花 叶,感病烟株明显矮化,叶片皱缩,向内卷曲。 ± 在自然条件下,烟草花叶病多由几种病毒的复合侵 染所致,病株症状也相当复杂。 ± 在特定鉴别寄主上的表现:CMV侵染心叶烟和曼陀罗 时呈现系统花叶,在苋色黎和中国豇豆上则产生枯 斑。TMV侵染心叶烟和曼陀罗时表现褐色圆形局部枯
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病原物 ± 引致烟草花叶病的病毒主要有烟草花叶病毒 Tobacco mosaic virus ,TMV、黄瓜花叶病毒 Cucumber mosaic virus, CMV和马铃薯Y病毒 Potato virus Y, PVY。分别属于烟草花叶病毒属 (Tobamovirus)、黄瓜花叶病毒属(Cucumovirus) 和马铃薯Y病毒属(Potyvirus)。 ± 1. TMV 粒体杆状。增殖适温为28~30 ℃,钝化
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This note was uploaded on 12/30/2011 for the course AGRICULTUR PlantIllne taught by Professor Lee during the Summer '09 term at Nanjing University.

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6_yc - 40 Tobacco mosaic 50

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