rpp2009-rev-particle-detectors-accel

rpp2009-rev-particle-detectors-accel - 28. Particle...

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28. Particle detectors 1 2 8 .P AR T I C L ED E T E C TOR SA TA C C E L ERA S ............. 2 28.1. Summary of detector spatial resolution, temporal resolution, a n dd e a d t im e ........................... 2 2 8 . 2 h o t o nd e t e c t o r s ......................... 3 2 8 . 2 . 1 .V a c u ump h o t o d e t e c t o r s .................... 5 2 8 . 2 . 1 . 1 h o t om u l t i p l i e r t u b e s ................... 5 2 8 . 2 . 1 . 2 .M i c r o c h a n n e lp l a t e 6 2 8 . 2 . 1 . 3 .H y b r i dp h o t o e t e c t o r s .................. 6 2 8 . 2 . 2 .G a s e o u sp h o t o e t e c t o r s .................... 7 2 8 . 2 . 3 .S o l i d - s t a t ep h o t o e t e c t o r 8 28.3. Organic scintillators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 28.3.1. Scintillation mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2 8 . 3 . 2 .C a v e a t sa n dc a u t i o n s ..................... 1 2 28.3.3. Scintillating and wavelength-shifting Fbers . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 28.4. Inorganic scintillators: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2 8 . 5 h e r e n k o vd e t e c t o r s........................ 1 8 2 8 . 6 a s e o u sd e t e c t o r s......................... 2 3 28.6.1. Energy loss and charge transport in gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 28.6.2. Multi-Wire Proportional Chambers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 2 8 . 6 . 3 i c r o - p a t t e r nG a sD e t e c t o r 3 3 2 8 . 6 . 4 .T e - p r o j e c t i o nc h am b e r 3 6 28.6.5. Transition radiation detectors (TRD’s) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 2 8 . 6 . 6 .R e s i s t i v e - p l a t ec h b e r 4 2 28.7. Semiconductor detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 2 8 . 7 . 1 a t e r i a l sR e q u i r em e n t 4 5 2 8 . 7 . 2 .D e t e c t o rC o n F g u r a t i o n 4 6 2 8 . 7 . 3 i g n a o rm a t i o n ....................... 4 7 2 8 . 7 . 4 a d i a t i o nD a g e....................... 4 8 2 8 . 8 .L o w - n o i s ee l e c t r o n i c s ........................ 4 9 2 8 . 9 a l o r e t e r s ........................... 5 4 2 8 . 9 . 1 .E l e c t r a g n e t i cc a l o r e t e r 5 5 2 8 . 9 . 2 a d r o n i a l o r e t e r 5 6 28.9.3. ±ree electron drift velocities in liquid ionization cham- b e r s .............................. 6 2 28.10. Superconducting magnets for collider detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 C. Amsler et al. ,PL B667 , 1 (2008) and 2009 partial update for the 2010 edition (http://pdg.lbl.gov) January 29, 2010 16:23
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2 28. Detectors at accelerators 2 8 . 1 0 . 1 .S o l e n o i dM a g n e t s ....................... 6 3 28.10.2. Properties of collider detector magnets . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 2 8 . 1 0 . 3 .T o r o i d a lm a g n e t s....................... 6 6 28.11. Measurement of particle momenta in a uniform magnetic F e l d ............................... 6 7 R e f e r e n c e s............................... 6 8 28. PARTICLE DETECTORS AT ACCELERATORS Revised 2009 (see the various sections for authors). 28.1. Summary of detector spatial resolution, temporal resolution, and deadtime In this section we give various parameters for common detector components. The quoted numbers are usually based on typical devices, and should be regarded only as rough approximations for new designs. More detailed discussions of detectors and their underlying physics can be found in books by ±erbel [1], Kleinknecht [2], Knoll [3], Green [4], Leroy & Rancoita [5], and Grupen [6]. In Table 28.1 are given typical resolutions and deadtimes of common detectors. Table 28.1: Typical resolutions and deadtimes of common detectors. Revised September 2009. Resolution Dead Detector Type Accuracy (rms) Time Time Bubble chamber 10–150 μ m 1 ms 50 ms a Streamer chamber 300 μ m2 μ s 100 ms Proportional chamber 50–100 μ m b,c,d 2 ns 200 ns Drift chamber 50–100 μ n s e 100 ns Scintillator 100 ps/n f 10 ns Emulsion 1 μ m— Liquid argon drift [7] 175–450 μ m 200 ns 2 μ s Micro-pattern gas detectors [8] 30–40 μ m < 10 ns 20 ns Resistive plate chamber [9] . 10 μ m 1–2 ns Silicon strip pitch/(3 to 7) g hh
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