rpp2009-rev-particle-detectors-non-accel

rpp2009-rev-particle-detectors-non-accel - 29 Detectors for...

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29. Detectors for non-accelerator physics 1 29. PARTICLE DETECTORS FOR NON-ACCELERATOR PHYSICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 29.1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 29.2. High-energy cosmic-ray hadron and gamma-ray detectors . . . . . . . . 2 29.2.1. Atmospheric fluorescence detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 29.2.2. Atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes for high-energy γ -ray astronomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 29.3. Large neutrino detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 29.3.1. Deep liquid detectors for rare processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 29.3.1.1. Liquid scintillator detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 29.3.1.2. Water Cherenkov detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 29.3.2. Neutrino telescopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 29.4. Sub-Kelvin detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 29.4.1. Thermal Phonons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 29.4.2. Athermal Phonons and Superconducting Quasiparticles . . . . . . 20 29.4.3. Ionization and Scintillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 29.5. Large time-projection chambers for rare event detection . . . . . . . . 22 29.6. Low-radioactivity background techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 29.6.1. Defining the problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 29.6.2. Environmental radioactivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 29.6.3. Radioimpurities in detector or shielding components . . . . . . . . 28 29.6.4. Radon and its progeny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 29.6.5. Cosmic rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 29.6.6. Neutrons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 29. PARTICLE DETECTORS FOR NON-ACCELERATOR PHYSICS Written 2009 (see the various sections for authors). 29.1. Introduction Non-accelerator experiments have become increasingly important in particle physics. These include classical cosmic ray experiments, neutrino oscillation measurements, and searches for double-beta decay, dark matter candidates, and magnetic monopoles. The experimental methods are sometimes those familiar at accelerators (plastic scintillators, drift chambers, TRD’s, etc. ) but there is also instrumentation either not found at accelerators or applied in a radically different way. Examples are atmospheric scintillation detectors (Fly’s Eye), massive Cherenkov detectors (Super-Kamiokande, IceCube), C. Amsler et al. , PL B667 , 1 (2008) and 2009 partial update for the 2010 edition (http://pdg.lbl.gov) February 2, 2010 17:01
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2 29. Detectors for non-accelerator physics ultracold solid state detectors (CDMS). And, except for the cosmic ray detectors, there is a demand for radiologically ultra-pure materials. In this section, some more important detectors special to terrestrial non-accelerator experiments are discussed. Techniques used in both accelerator and non-accelerator experiments are described in Sec. 28, Particle Detectors at Accelerators, some of which have been modified to accommodate the non-accelerator nuances. Space-based detectors also use some unique methods, but these are beyond the present scope of RPP . 29.2. High-energy cosmic-ray hadron and gamma-ray detectors 29.2.1. Atmospheric fluorescence detectors : Written September 2009 by L.R. Wiencke (Colorado School of Mines). Cosmic-ray fluorescence detectors (FD) use the atmosphere as a giant calorimeter to measure isotropic scintillation light that traces the development profiles of extensive air showers (EAS). The EASs observed are produced by the interactions of high-energy (E > 10 17 eV) subatomic particles in the stratosphere and upper troposphere. The amount of scintillation light generated is proportional to energy deposited in the atmosphere and nearly independent of the primary species. Experiments with FDs include the pioneering Fly’s Eye [1], HiRes [2], the Telescope Array [3], and the Pierre Auger Observatory [4].
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