Embargo Act - The Embargo Act, passed December 22, 1807, forbade all import/export trade between the United States and foreign nations. It was a stronger re-formulation of the existing Non-Importation Act, and was passed in response to the Berlin and Milan Decrees of Napoleon and Parliament's Orders in Council. Because it was essentially unenforceable, the Embargo Act was an out-and-out failure from both an economic and political standpoint, and was repealed upon the inauguration of James Madison on March 4, 1809. English Civil War - The English Civil War, fought from 1642 to 1648, was a battle between royalist supporters and a radical wing of Parliament under the leadership of Oliver Cromwell. Ultimately, the sitting monarch, King Charles I, was deposed and beheaded, and Cromwell ruled over the newly established Commonwealth for nearly a decade. The monarchy was restored in 1660, but Parliament had permanently strengthened its role within the English government.
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Parliament, Charles I of England, Charles II of England, William III of England, James II of England, Embargo Act