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Unformatted text preview: 464 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION FORENSICS AND SECURITY, VOL. 1, NO. 4, DECEMBER 2006 ‘Print and Scan’ Resilient Data Hiding in Images Kaushal Solanki , Member, IEEE , Upamanyu Madhow , Fellow, IEEE , B. S. Manjunath , Fellow, IEEE , Shiv Chandrasekaran, and Ibrahim El-Khalil , Student Member, IEEE Abstract— Print-scan resilient data hiding finds important ap- plications in document security and image copyright protection. This paper proposes methods to hide information into images that achieve robustness against printing and scanning with blind de- coding. The selective embedding in low frequencies scheme hides information in the magnitude of selected low-frequency discrete Fourier transform coefficients. The differential quantization index modulation scheme embeds information in the phase spectrum of images by quantizing the difference in phase of adjacent frequency locations. A significant contribution of this paper is analytical and experimental modeling of the print-scan process, which forms the basis of the proposed embedding schemes. A novel approach for es- timating the rotation undergone by the image during the scanning process is also proposed, which specifically exploits the knowledge of the digital halftoning scheme employed by the printer. Using the proposed methods, several hundred information bits can be em- bedded into images with perfect recovery against the print-scan op- eration. Moreover, the hidden images also survive several other at- tacks, such as Gaussian or median filtering, scaling or aspect ratio change, heavy JPEG compression, and rows and/or columns re- moval. Index Terms— Copyright protection, data hiding, digital water- marking, document authentication, print-scan modeling. I. INTRODUCTION T HE advent of the digital age with the Internet revolution has made it extremely convenient for users to access, create, process, copy, or exchange multimedia data. This has created an urgent need for protecting intellectual property in both the digital and the print media. Digital watermarking is a technology being developed, in which copyright information is embedded imperceptibly into the host in a way that is robust to a variety of intentional or unintentional attacks. The ease with which images can be converted from print to digital form and vice versa makes it necessary that the embedded digital watermark is resilient to the print and scan operation. Strong deterrents against forgery of important documents, such as passports, driving licenses, and ID cards need to be de- veloped at this time, when the concerns over security are higher than ever before. Print-scan resilient data hiding provides a vi- able solution to this problem: security information (such as fin- gerprints, signature, or passport number) can be imperceptibly Manuscript received August 28, 2005; revised July 30, 2006. This work was supported by a Grant from ONR N00014-01-1-0380. The associate editor coor- dinating the review of this manuscript and approving it for publication was Dr.dinating the review of this manuscript and approving it for publication was Dr....
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This note was uploaded on 12/28/2011 for the course BIO 100 taught by Professor Gomez during the Fall '11 term at UCSB.
- Fall '11