03_HJ_Ch02

03_HJ_Ch02 - Four Views of a Computer The users view The...

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Four Views of a Computer The user’s view The programmer’s view The architect’s view The hardware designer’s view
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The User’s View of a Computer The user sees form factors, software, speed, storage capacity, and peripheral device functionality.
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Embedded (Computer) System ± A special purpose computer system enclosed or encapsulated within a physical system ± Usually the embedded system provides the control of the physical system 3 They are everywhere today: Consumer electronics, communications, entertainment, transportation, health, home appliances, etc.
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Machine/assembly Language Programmer’s View ± Machine language: Set of fundamental instructions the machine can execute Expressed as a pattern of 1’s and 0’s ± Assembly language: Alphanumeric equivalent of machine language Mnemonics more human oriented than 1’s and 0’s ± Assembler: Computer program that transliterates (one-to-one mapping) assembly to machine language Computer’s native language is assembly/machine language “Programmer”, as used in this course, means assembly/machine language programmer
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The Fetch-Execute Cycle
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Programmer’s Model: Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) Instruction set: the collection of all machine operations. Programmer sees set of instructions, along with the machine resources manipulated by them. ISA includes instruction set, memory, and programmer accessible registers of the system. There may be temporary or scratch-pad memory used to implement some function is not part of ISA. “Non Programmer Accessible.”
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Fig 1.3 Programmer’s Models of 4 commercial machines
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The Computer Architect’s View Architect is concerned with design & performance Designs the ISA for optimum programming utility and optimum performance of implementation Designs the hardware for best implementation of the instructions Uses performance measurement tools, such as benchmark programs, to see that goals are met Balances performance of building blocks such as CPU, memory, I/O devices, and interconnections Meets performance goals at lowest cost
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Fig 1.4 One and Two Bus Architecture Examples
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Hardware Designer’s View Designs the machine at the RTL/logic gate level The design determines whether the architect meets cost and performance goals Architect and hardware designer may be a single person or team
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Two Views of the CPU PC Register 31 0 PC Programmer: D Q 32 32 PC out PC in CK PC A Bus B Bus Hardware Designer (Fig 1.8):
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Chapter 2 : Machines, Machine Languages, and Digital Logic Topics 2.1 Classification of Computers and Their Instructions 2.2 Computer Instruction Sets 2.3 Informal Description of the Simple RISC Computer, SRC 2.4 Formal Description of SRC Using Register Transfer Notation, RTN 2.5 Describing Addressing Modes with RTN 2.6 Register Transfers and Logic Circuits: From Behavior to Hardware
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What Are the Components of an ISA?
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This note was uploaded on 12/28/2011 for the course ECE 152b taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at UCSB.

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03_HJ_Ch02 - Four Views of a Computer The users view The...

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