f37-book-intarch-pres-pt1

f37-book-intarch-pres-pt1 - Part I Background and...

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Jan. 2011 Computer Architecture, Background and Motivation Slide 1 Part I Background and Motivation
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Jan. 2011 Computer Architecture, Background and Motivation Slide 2 About This Presentation This presentation is intended to support the use of the textbook Computer Architecture: From Microprocessors to Supercomputers , Oxford University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-19-515455-X. It is updated regularly by the author as part of his teaching of the upper- division course ECE 154, Introduction to Computer Architecture, at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Instructors can use these slides freely in classroom teaching and for other educational purposes. Any other use is strictly prohibited. © Behrooz Parhami Edition Released Revised Revised Revised Revised First June 2003 July 2004 June 2005 Mar. 2006 Jan. 2007 Jan. 2008 Jan. 2009 Jan. 2011 Second
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Jan. 2011 Computer Architecture, Background and Motivation Slide 3 I Background and Motivation Topics in This Part Chapter 1 Combinational Digital Circuits Chapter 2 Digital Circuits with Memory Chapter 3 Computer System Technology Chapter 4 Computer Performance Provide motivation, paint the big picture, introduce tools: Review components used in building digital circuits Present an overview of computer technology Understand the meaning of computer performance ( or why a 2 GHz processor isn’t 2 × as fast as a 1 GHz model)
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Jan. 2011 Computer Architecture, Background and Motivation Slide 4 1 Combinational Digital Circuits First of two chapters containing a review of digital design: Combinational, or memoryless, circuits in Chapter 1 Sequential circuits, with memory, in Chapter 2 Topics in This Chapter 1.1 Signals, Logic Operators, and Gates 1.2 Boolean Functions and Expressions 1.3 Designing Gate Networks 1.4 Useful Combinational Parts 1.5 Programmable Combinational Parts 1.6 Timing and Circuit Considerations
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Jan. 2011 Computer Architecture, Background and Motivation Slide 5 1.1 Signals, Logic Operators, and Gates Figure 1.1 Some basic elements of digital logic circuits, with operator signs used in this book highlighted. x y / AND Name XOR OR NOT Graphical symbol x y Operator sign and alternate(s) x y x y xy x + y x ¬ x or x _ x × y or xy Arithmetic expression x + y - 2 xy x + y - xy 1 - x Output is 1 iff: Input is 0 Both inputs are 1s At least one input is 1 Inputs are not equal
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Jan. 2011 Computer Architecture, Background and Motivation Slide 6 The Arithmetic Substitution Method z = 1 – z NOT converted to arithmetic form xy AND same as multiplication (when doing the algebra, set z k = z ) x y = x + y - xy OR converted to arithmetic form x y = x + y - 2 xy XOR converted to arithmetic form Example: Prove the identity xyz x y z ? 1 LHS = [ xyz x ] [ y z ] = [ xyz + 1 – x – (1 – x ) xyz ] [1 – y + 1 – z – (1 – y )(1 – z )] = [ xyz + 1 – x ] [1 – yz ] = ( xyz + 1 – x ) + (1 – yz ) – ( xyz + 1 – x )(1 – yz ) = 1 + xy 2 z 2 xyz = 1 = RHS This is addition, not logical OR
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Jan. 2011 Computer Architecture, Background and Motivation Slide 7 Variations in Gate Symbols Figure 1.2 Gates with more than two inputs and/or with inverted signals at input or output.
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