f33-book-depend-pres-pt2

f33-book-depend-pres-pt2 - Oct. 2009 Part II Defects:...

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Oct. 2009 Part II – Defects: Physical Imperfections Slide 1
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Oct. 2009 Part II – Defects: Physical Imperfections Slide 2 About This Presentation This presentation is intended to support the use of the textbook Dependable Computing: A Multilevel Approach (traditional print or on-line open publication, TBD). It is updated regularly by the author as part of his teaching of the graduate course ECE 257A, Fault-Tolerant Computing, at Univ. of California, Santa Barbara. Instructors can use these slides freely in classroom teaching or for other educational purposes. Unauthorized uses, including distribution for profit, are strictly prohibited. © Behrooz Parhami Edition Released Revised Revised Revised Revised First Sep. 2006 Oct. 2007 Oct. 2009
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Oct. 2009 Part II – Defects: Physical Imperfections Slide 3 5 Defect Avoidance
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Oct. 2009 Part II – Defects: Physical Imperfections Slide 4
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Oct. 2009 Part II – Defects: Physical Imperfections Slide 5
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Oct. 2009 Part II – Defects: Physical Imperfections Slide 6 5.1 Types and Causes of Defects Resistive open due to unfilled via Resistive open due to unfilled via [R. Madge et al., [R. Madge et al., IEEE D&T, IEEE D&T, 2003] 2003] Particle embedded Particle embedded between layers between layers
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Oct. 2009 Part II – Defects: Physical Imperfections Slide 7 Process and Operational Variations Even if there isn’t a complete short Even if there isn’t a complete short or open, resistance and capacitance or open, resistance and capacitance variations can lead to trouble variations can lead to trouble Chip temperature map Chip temperature map
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Oct. 2009 Part II – Defects: Physical Imperfections Slide 8 Analogy: Ideal vs. Real Clock Signals Real clock signal is Real clock signal is quite different quite different Ideal clock signal has sharp edges Ideal clock signal has sharp edges and an exact constant period and an exact constant period
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Oct. 2009 Part II – Defects: Physical Imperfections Slide 9 Disk Memory Defects The tiniest particle or The tiniest particle or scratch can wipe out scratch can wipe out many thousands of bits many thousands of bits
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Oct. 2009 Part II – Defects: Physical Imperfections Slide 10 5.2 Yield and Its Associated Costs 15-30 cm 30-60 cm Silicon crystal ingot Slicer Processing: 20-30 steps Blank wafer with defects x x x x x x x x x x x 0.2 cm Patterned wafer (100s of simple or scores of complex processors) Dicer Die ~1 cm Good die ~1 cm Die tester Microchip or other part Mounting Part tester Usable part to ship
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Part II – Defects: Physical Imperfections Slide 11 The dramatic decrease in yield with larger dies Effect of Die Size on Yield 120 dies, 109 good 26 dies, 15 good Shown are some random defects; there are also bulk or clustered defects that affect a large region Die yield = def (Number of good dies) / (Total number of dies) Die yield = Wafer yield × [1 + (Defect density × Die area) / a ] a Die cost = (Cost of wafer) / (Total number of dies × Die yield) = (Cost of wafer)
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This note was uploaded on 12/29/2011 for the course ECE 257a taught by Professor Parhami,b during the Fall '08 term at UCSB.

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f33-book-depend-pres-pt2 - Oct. 2009 Part II Defects:...

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