Lecture 4_winter_2012_6tp

Lecture 4_winter_2012_6tp - Topics to be Covered The Speech...

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1 1 Digital Speech Processing— Lecture 4 Speech Perception- Auditory Models, Sound Perception Models, MOS Methods 2 Topics to be Covered • The Speech Chain – Production and Human Perception Auditory mechanisms — the human ear and how it converts sound to auditory representations Auditory/Hearing Models – Perceptual Linear Prediction (PLP) Model – Seneff Auditory Model – Lyon Cochlear Model – Ghitza Ensemble Interval Histogram (EIH) Model Speech perception and what we know about physical and psychophysical measures of sound Auditory masking • Sound and word perception in noise 3 Speech Perception • understanding how we hear sounds and how we perceive speech leads to better design and implementation of robust and efficient systems for analyzing and representing speech • the better we understand signal processing in the human auditory system, the better we can (at least in theory) design practical speech processing systems – speech and audio coding (MP3 audio, cellphone speech) – speech recognition • try to understand speech perception by looking at the physiological models of hearing The Speech Chain • The Speech Chain comprises the processes of: • speech production, • auditory feedback to the speaker, • speech transmission (through air or over an electronic communication system (to the listener), and • speech perception and understanding by the listener. The Speech Chain • The message to be conveyed by speech goes through five levels of representation between the speaker and the listener, namely: – the linguistic level (where the basic sounds of the communication are chosen to express some thought of idea) – the physiological level (where the vocal tract components produce the sounds associated with the linguistic units of the utterance) – the acoustic level (where sound is released from the lips and nostrils and transmitted to both the speaker (sound feedback) and to the listener) – the physiological level (where the sound is analyzed by the ear and the auditory nerves), and finally – the linguistic level (where the speech is perceived as a sequence of linguistic units and understood in terms of the ideas being communicated) 5 The Auditory System the acoustic signal first converted to a neural representation by processing in the ear – the convertion takes place in stages at the outer, middle and inner ear – these processes can be measured and quantified the neural transduction step takes place between the output of the inner ear and the neural pathways to the brain – consists of a statistical process of nerve firings at the hair cells of the inner ear, which are transmitted along the auditory nerve to the brain – much remains to be learned about this process the nerve firing signals along the auditory nerve are processed by the brain to create the perceived sound corresponding to the spoken utterance – these processes not yet understood 6 Acoustic to Neural Converter Neural Transduction Neural Processing Perceived Sound Auditory System
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Lecture 4_winter_2012_6tp - Topics to be Covered The Speech...

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