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IMG_NEW_0001 - Com pa rative physiology"sca ling"...

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ln higher animals, digestion occurs exclusivelv by extracellular means in an alimentary canal, a one-way tube running from mouth to anus. There are many structural and functional adaptations of digestive systems that are associated with the diet and lifestyle of the organism: 4. Overview: organ specialisation for sequential stages of food processing in mammal digestive system 5. Evolutionary adaptations of vertebrate digestive systems correlate with diet - dental adaptations i - carnivores = large pointed canines; jagged premolars and molars - herbivores = incisors/canines flat for cutting vegetation; other teeth have broad, ridged surfaces for grinding plant material lnsulin and glucagon = example of hormones with antagonistic function 8. Bioenergetics of
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Unformatted text preview: Com pa rative physiology: "sca ling" of meta bolic rate and body mass across different species (Fie. a0.19) ]rfWv,OfA- "mixed" teeth structure for eating meat + plants: 2 x bladelike incisors, canine for biting/tea ring, premolars for grinding, mola rs for crushing 5. Digestive tract adaptations: stomach and intestine 7. Homeostatic mechanisms contribute to an animal's energy budget Energy obtained from food = Energy for metabolism, activity and storage When food intake is greater than energy used, excess nutrients can be stored Muscle and liver cells = main storage sites Homeostatic mechanisms balance storage vs. utilisation e.g. glucose homeostasis (Fig. 1-21)...
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