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Unformatted text preview: Notes For Archeology test 10-31 10-17-07 Culture in Asia - 2 A. By 3,000 BC the Neolithic cultures in China begin to look broadly similar a. We refer to these similar looking cultures as Lungshanoid Cultures i. Early Lungshanoid Phase 1. peaceful, largely egalitarian ii. Late Lungshanoid Phase 1. more warlike and ranked B. First 3 Dynasties a. The Hsia (Xia) b. The Shang c. The Chou (Jhou) C. Lungshanoid Techniques a. With the Lungshanoid there is an emergence of this thick, shiny, black pottery b. Oracle Bones or Scaplimancy i. A sizable piece of bone that is dried 1. such as the scapula of cattle or oxen or a turtle shell ii. a question is asked and then a hot piece of metal is placed onto the bone 1. depending on how the bone cracks, the shamans will interpret the answer c. Village wall construction Hang-Tu or Pise i. A rammed earth technique 1. incredibly hard packed clay or earth Yang Shao Lungshanoid 1. some movement, but most areas have been repetitively occupied 2. Domesticated animals: dogs and pigs 3. Settlements: seem to be in a confined area (nuclear area) 4. Pottery: black with some red, mainly simple and handmade 5. no history of anything like oracle bones 6. no evidence of defensive works or structures, basically no weapons 7. Burial practices show a differentiation b/w age and sec only 1. permanent settlements and relatively permanent occupation 2. Domesticated animals: dogs, pigs, cattle, and sheep 3. Settlements: far-reaching expansion 4. Pottery: wheel-made pottery 5. oracles bones 6. the appearance of the hang-tu walls (defensive walls) and weapons 7. burial practices show differences between rank and society levels 8. Community: "conspicuous consumption" aka different wealth levels (ex: Jade is only found in one area) 8. 8. Community: little evidence of social stratification Neotlithic Revolution, China invented agriculture separately, Shen Hung- invented agriculture, 1 st of the great herbalists, and is the patron diety for todays herbalists. Started first with millets and then moved to rice. Notes from 10-22-07 Pages to read from chapter 8: 234-239, 243-256 Pages to read from chapter 9: 261-266, 270-280 Political Organization-Decentralized (Bands and Tribes) and Centralized (Chieftains and States)-Bands- the least complicated, small autonomous groups. They were as small as a nuclear family living together and occupied a common territory. They lived in subsistence circumstances, and were hunters and gathers, very mobile in a nomadic way of life. When conditions are favorable the numbers of Bands getting together may get up to 200 if there is enough of water, and a large harvest. When these conditions are favorable during these times there are feasts and rituals, but when food is scarce they disband back into much smaller groupings. Bands are democratic, no member can tell the other member what to do. There was mostly no private ownership, outside of owning ones own tools. All other resources were shared by all members of the group. This owning ones own tools....
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- Fall '07