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Unformatted text preview: Environmental Management Avoid Common Pitfalls
Francis L. Smith
Allan H. Harvey
National Institute of
Standards and Technology Here is practical guidance on the use of
Henry’s law in engineering calculations and
how to account for the temperature dependence
of the Henry’s constant — which is often ignored
but which can be crucial for accurate process design. H enry’s law and the Henry’s constant are widely used
in chemical and environmental engineering. Unfortunately, many people do not appreciate that the
Henry’s “constant” is not a true constant, but instead has a
significant non-linear temperature dependence. Ignoring this
temperature dependence can lead to serious inaccuracies.
This article discusses the temperature dependence of the
Henry’s constant and suggests ways of estimating this
dependence when data are limited or not available. It also
briefly discusses other common pitfalls to be avoided when
using Henry’s law. The focus is on dilute aqueous systems,
such as those found in environmental applications, but much
of the information is also appropriate for other applications. Thermodynamic basics
CEP published a series of articles by Carroll (1–3) covering many aspects of Henry’s law and its uses in chemical
engineering. This article will not repeat the material presented there, but will summarize a few key concepts that
are relevant to this discussion.
In a given solvent, the Henry’s constant for solute i, Hi,
is defined as an infinite-dilution limit:
H i = lim xi → 0 fi
xi (1) where fi and xi are the fugacity and the mole fraction of the
solute, respectively. (Variables other than mole fraction are
sometimes used to describe the amount of solute; this will
be discussed later.)
Equation 1 may be applied at any temperature or pres- sure, and the solvent may be a liquid, a vapor, a supercritical fluid, or even a solid. Most applications, however,
involve a liquid solvent. Furthermore, it is usually convenient to define Hi at a pressure equal to the solvent’s vapor
pressure. (Reference 1 explains how to use these values at
higher pressures.) When restricted to the solvent’s vaporpressure curve, Hi becomes a function of temperature only.
For environmental work at pressures near ambient, this
“restricted” Henry’s constant is adequate. (The pressure
dependence is ignored in the remainder of this article.)
More-complex methods covering wide ranges of temperatures and pressures, such as those encountered in geochemistry, may be found elsewhere (4–6).
Since real systems never reach the limit of infinite dilution, most applications of Henry’s law involve the use of
Eq. 1 without the infinite-dilution limit. The assumption
that fi /xi remains constant for non-zero values of xi is reasonable for many environmental applications, where the
goal is to describe the solubility or volatility of small
amounts of contaminants in water.
With the proportionality between fi and xi established by
Henry’s law for one phase (e.g., an aqueous phase being
purified), one needs only a model for fi in the other phase in
order to design a separation process based on phase equilibrium. For steam or air stripping, where the coexisting phase
is a vapor, an ideal-gas assumption is often sufficient, or
corrections for nonideality may be added. If the coexisting
phase is a liquid (for example, in liquid-liquid extraction),
Raoult’s law is the simplest assumption; this may be corrected by a liquid-phase activity model as appropriate.
CEP September 2007 www.aiche.org/cep 33 Environmental Management Nomenclature
xworg = any of various measures of composition in the
liquid phase (various units may be used)
= heat capacity of solution, J/mol-K
= fugacity of solute i, MPa
= Henry’s constant for solute i, MPa
= the “solubility form” of the Henry’s constant for
solute i, MPa–1
= enthalpy of solution, J/mol
= enthalpy of vaporization, J/mol
= vapor pressure of pure component i at the temperature of the solution, MPa
= molar gas constant = 8.314472 J/mol-K
= temperature, K
= critical temperature of the solute, K
= initial and final temperatures for an extrapolation
of Hi, K
= mole fraction of solute i
= mole fraction of the organic solute in the aqueous
= mole fraction of water dissolved in the organic
phase Greek Letters
= infinite-dilution value for the activity coefficient
of solute i in the solvent, dimensionless Where do Henry’s constants come from?
A review of the many data sources for Henry’s constants is beyond the scope of this article. However, it is
helpful to understand how these data are obtained. Henry’s
constants cannot be measured simply by placing a meter
into a solution. Rather, they are derived indirectly from
experiment via Eq. 1.
For a sparingly soluble gaseous solute, the determination of Hi is straightforward from Eq. 1 (although the
experiments may be difficult). Measurements of the solubility xi at low gas partial pressures yield Hi directly (perhaps after small corrections for gas nonideality to improve
the value of fi).
For a liquid solute that is nearly immiscible with the solvent, such as toluene with water, use of Eq. 1 is again
straightforward. For the case where component i forms an
organic-rich phase that is nearly immiscible with an aqueous phase, the solute fugacity in the solute-rich phase
(which must be equal to that in the solvent-rich phase) can
be approximated by Raoult’s law:
Hi = (1 − x ) p
i (2) where xworg is the mole fraction of water in the organic
phase, xiaq is the mole fraction of the organic solute in the
34 www.aiche.org/cep September 2007 CEP aqueous phase, and pisat is the vapor pressure of pure component i at the temperature of the solution. A comprehensive
collection of mutual solubility data for hydrocarbons with
water and seawater is available in Ref. 7.
For solutes with large or complete miscibility with the
solvent (such as lower alcohols with water), the determination of Henry’s constant must again come from Eq. 1, but
full analysis of the phase equilibrium is typically required.
This usually involves fitting a liquid-activity model to
experimental data and extrapolating the solute fugacity back
to infinite dilution with the model. Equation 1 ultimately
H i = γ iinf pisat ( 3) where γiinf is the infinite-dilution value for the activity coefficient of solute i in the solvent.
An engineer who cannot find a tabulated Henry’s constant is not necessarily stymied. If good phase-equilibrium
data exist for the solute-solvent pair at the temperature of
interest, a reliable value of Henry’s constant can be derived. Temperature dependence
As stated earlier, the Henry’s “constant” is not constant
with respect to temperature. Figure 1 illustrates some typical behavior of Hi(T) for several solutes in water. (Other
aspects of Figure 1 will be discussed later.) The values for
CO2 are taken from the correlation of Fernández-Prini, et al.
(8), while those for other solutes come from the correlating
equations used by de Hemptinne, et al. (9). These are not
necessarily the best values in the range plotted, but only the
qualitative behavior is important for this discussion.
The Henry’s constant typically increases with temperature at low temperatures, reaches a maximum, and then
decreases at higher temperatures. The temperature at which
the maximum occurs depends on the specific solute-solvent
pair. As a rule of thumb, the maximum tends to increase
with increasing solute critical temperature for a given
solvent and with increasing solvent critical temperature for
a given solute.
Clearly, the use of a Henry’s constant that was derived at
25°C at a different temperature could lead to serious design
errors. Even a variation as small as 10 K can cause the
Henry’s constant to change by a factor of two, which could
have a serious impact on many designs.
In some cases, reliable values for Henry’s constants are
available over the entire temperature range of interest. For
example, for common gases in water, the correlation of
Fernández-Prini, et al. (8) extends from 0°C to the critical
point of water. In other cases, solubility data are available
so that Henry’s constants can be derived by the methods
described in the previous section. But in many cases, only a 100,000
n-Octane Henryʼs Constant, MPa 10,000
Tc = 30.9°C CO2
Toluene 100 10 1
20 40 80 100 120 140 160 180
Temperature, °C I Figure 1. Temperature dependence of Henry’s constant for several solutes in
water, showing the performance of the vapor-pressure extrapolation method
starting at 25°C. The horizontal axis is linear in reciprocal absolute temperature. few data, or perhaps only a single measurement, will be
available, often at or near 25°C.
Sometimes no data at all will have been measured. If
measuring it (or contracting for its measurement) are not
options, one must rely on predictive schemes that estimate a
Henry’s constant from molecular structure (and perhaps
other properties such as solute chromatographic parameters). These methods (10–14), which are beyond the scope
of this article, typically provide a value at a single temperature, such as 25°C.
The following sections discuss how to extrapolate
Henry’s constants from a single data point at a
given temperature (e.g., 25°C) when temperature10,000
dependent data are lacking. Estimating temperature dependence
using vapor pressure
The starting point for intelligent extrapolation
of Henry’s constants is Eq. 3. When extrapolating
from a known value of Hi at temperature T0 to
temperature T1, Eq. 3 becomes:
H i (T1 ) γ iinf (T1 ) pisat (T1 )
H i (T0 ) γ iinf (T0 ) pisat (T0 ) (4) zontal axis has units of degrees Celsius, it is actually linear in inverse absolute temperature (but
reversed, so that temperature increases along the
axis from left to right).
As expected from the Clausius-Clapeyron equation, log10pisat is nearly linear in inverse temperature. The temperature dependence of γiinf is modest near ambient temperature, so that the temperature variation of Hi is primarily a consequence of
the variation in pisat. At higher temperatures, γiinf
varies much more rapidly, so that the temperature
variation of Hi becomes more strongly dependent
on the combined variations of both pisat and γiinf.
The behavior noted in Figure 2 suggests an
extrapolation procedure. Especially for small
temperature intervals near ambient conditions,
the relatively minor contribution of γiinf(T) in
Eq. 4 can be ignored and a reasonable extrapolation obtained from:
H i (T1 ) pisat (T1 )
H i (T0 ) pisat (T0 ) (5) Equation 5 is particularly convenient because the
vapor-pressure function pisat(T) is known for many solutes
of interest, while temperature-dependent values of γiinf are
Figure 3 shows the performance of this vapor-pressureratio extrapolation method, Eq. 5, for toluene in water with a
single value at 25°C as the starting point. Equation 5 provides
an excellent extrapolation for this temperature range — much
better than if Hi had been assumed to be constant. γ — Toluene – Water 1,000
Toluene – Water
Henry’s Constant, MPa
100 10 Toluene Vapor Pressure, kPa The interrelated temperature dependencies of
Henry’s constant Hi, infinite-dilution activity coef1
80 100 120 140 160 180
ficient γiinf, and solute vapor pressure pisat can be
demonstrated by plotting them together. Figure 2
shows these variables for a typical solute (toluene) I Figure 2. Interdependence of Henry’s constant, solute vapor pressure and
infinite-dilution activity coefficient (Eq. 3) for toluene in water. Note the different
on a logarithmic scale; note that while the horipressure units on the Henry’s constant and the vapor pressure.
CEP September 2007 www.aiche.org/cep 35 Environmental Management γiinf(T1)/γiinf(T0) for use in Eq. 4. It is important to
use a model that is designed to include temperature dependence; some predictive models are
designed only for 25°C and therefore are inappropriate for this purpose. The modified UNIFAC
model (16) yields the temperature variation of γiinf;
the COSMO-RS method (17) might also be use60
ful, although its use in this context has not been
documented in the literature.
Hwang, et al. (18) studied the infinite-dilution
Vapor Pressure Ratio
vapor-liquid partition constant (which is closely
Single Data Point @ 25°C
related to the Henry’s constant) in the context of
Toluene – Water
steam stripping for organic pollutants in water.
They established a databank for 404 common
organic pollutants, including many EPA-desig50
nated priority pollutants, at 100°C and 25°C. In
cases where high-temperature data were lacking,
I Figure 3. Illustration of vapor-pressure extrapolation technique (Eq. 4) for
they used the vapor-pressure extrapolation
the Henry’s constant of toluene in water.
method, supplementing it with activity coefficients estimated with UNIFAC. They tabulated
In Figure 1, the vapor-pressure-ratio extrapolation is
suggested values for log10[γiinf(100°C)/γiinf(25°C)] for sevplotted for four compounds over a wider temperature range.
eral different classes of organic compounds.
Because the horizontal scale is linear in reciprocal absolute
Van’t Hoff extrapolation
temperature, the extrapolations are nearly linear on these
coordinates. The accuracy of the extrapolation from 25°C
An alternative method for extrapolation of single values
with Eq. 5 deteriorates at higher temperatures, but it is quite
for Henry’s constants uses the solute enthalpy of solution,
good up to 50°C and not unreasonable up to perhaps 80°C.
∆Hsol, over a modest temperature range. A thermodynamic
Note that the vapor pressure of CO2 does not exist above
expression, usually associated with the name van’t Hoff,
its critical temperature (Tc = 30.9°C), so Eq. 5 cannot be
relates the Henry’s constant at the two absolute temperaused directly for the extrapolation of Hi above this temperatures T0 and T1:
ture. However, the critical temperature of solute i does not
⎡ ⎛ ∆H sol ⎞ ⎛ 1
H i (T1 )
introduce any irregularities into the behavior of Hi(T), so Hi
≈ exp ⎢ ⎜
⎝ R ⎟ ⎜ T1 T0 ⎟ ⎥
H i (T0 )
can still be extrapolated to some extent above the solute
critical temperature by visual or graphical means based on
the vapor pressure data below Tc.
where R is the molar gas constant. Equation 6 derives from
For some less-common solutes, the vapor-pressure data
a differential expression, so its use over a finite temperature
needed for Eq. 5 may not be known at the temperatures of
range makes the implicit assumption that ∆Hsol remains
interest. In such cases, estimation techniques for pisat(T)
constant with temperature (so it cannot reproduce the curva(15) can be used to obtain the vapor-pressure ratio for Eq. 5.
ture and maximum shown in Figure 1). This is usually a fair
approximation for modest temperature differences of perEnhancing extrapolation
haps 20 K, making the van’t Hoff approach reasonable for
with infinite-dilution activity coefficients
systems near ambient temperature, such as groundwater,
Equation 5 can be improved upon if one can estimate the
where the temperature variations are not large (19). If availtemperature dependence of the infinite-dilution activity
able, data for the heat capacity of solution, ∆Cp,sol, can be
coefficient γiinf; in such cases, Eq. 4 would be used. This is
used to increase the range of reasonable extrapolation by
only a small correction for short extrapolations near ambiproviding a temperature dependence for ∆Hsol.
ent temperature, but becomes a major factor for larger
Data for ∆Hsol (and ∆Cp,sol) for solutes in water are diffiextrapolations, especially to higher temperatures such as
cult to measure experimentally. Published values are limited
those used in steam stripping.
and (as can be seen in tabulations such as that in Ref. 20)
In the absence of experimental data, predictive models
can vary substantially. Often, tabulated values of ∆Hsol are
for activity coefficients can be used to estimate
merely derived from values of Hi measured over a range of
Henryʼs Constant, MPa 120 36 www.aiche.org/cep September 2007 CEP temperatures. If such data for Hi(T) already exist, it is a
waste of effort and sacrifices accuracy to translate them into
∆Hsol and then use Eq. 6 — it is better to use the measured
Hi(T) directly. (It is reasonable, though, to use Eq. 6 to
interpolate measured data for Hi(T) over small temperature
ranges, which was done by Washington (19)). However, if
independent values of ∆Hsol exist at the desired temperature,
either from calorimetric data or from a reliable estimation
technique, Eq. 6 provides a reasonable method for extrapolating Henry’s constants over modest temperature intervals.
Note that ∆Hsol can be either negative or positive, depending on whether the temperature of interest is below or above
the maximum of Hi(T) (Figure 1).
Occasionally (21), one sees an equation similar in form to
Eq. 6, but with the negative of the pure-solute enthalpy of
vaporization, –∆Hvap, in place of ∆Hsol. Such a substitution
has little basis in thermodynamics, but it can provide an adequate estimate in some cases. This is because the Clapeyron
equation relates ∆Hvap to the temperature dependence of the
vapor pressure, so that the use of ∆Hvap in Eq. 6 becomes
nearly equivalent to the vapor-pressure extrapolation method,
Eq. 5. However, ∆Hvap is almost never measured independently, but is typically derived from data for pisat(T). Consequently, it is preferable to use Eq. 5 directly, in order to avoid
loss of accuracy when pisat(T) is differentiated. Note also that
the vapor-pressure extrapolation method, unlike the van’t
Hoff type methods, implicitly corrects for the temperature
dependence of ∆Hvap over the range of the extrapolation. Pitfalls with chemically reacting systems
Some substances (NH3, Cl2, organic acids, etc.) partition
within the aqueous phase, due to reversible equilibrium
processes such as dissociation. Henry’s law describes only
the equilibrium of a single neutral species of the substance
between the two phases:
[NH3]Gas Henryís Law [NH3]Aqueous However, within the aqueous phase, partitioning of the
aqueous form of a substance may occur and would, therefore,
need to be accounted for and described. This is done using
one or more additional equilibrium expressions, such as:
[NH3]Aqueous + [H2O] dissociation [NH4+] + [OH–] The consequence of such partitioning (2, 22, 23) is that,
for a given gas-phase concentration, a larger quantity of the
substance may actually exist within the aqueous phase at
equilibrium than would be predicted by Henry’s law. This can
be especially significant if a dissociated species participates
in an additional reaction, such as an acid-base reaction that would consume OH-. Similarly, a much smaller amount may
actually exist in the gas phase at equilibrium than would be
predicted by Henry’s law if a quantitative analytical method
that measures the sum of the associated and dissociated forms
of the solute were used to determine the total quantity of the
partitioned substance in the aqueous phase. Pitfalls with units
A common problem with Henry’s constants is caused by
the wide variety of possible units of measure. Because
Henry’s law is used in many different disciplines, many different usages and conventions have developed. If proper
care is not taken, it can be easy to use a reported Henry’s
constant in a way that does not match the way in which the
original value was defined — leading to serious errors.
Because Henry’s constants vary over many orders of magnitude (Figure 1), errors due to units are more difficult to
detect by inspection in this case than in many other engineering situations (for example, calculation of pure-component vapor pressures, where an engineer would have a good
idea of the correct order of magnitude).
The definition in Eq. 1 (fugacity divided by mole fraction) implies units of pressure for Hi. This is the most common usage for chemical engineers. However, in various
contexts one sees gas-phase composition described by partial pressure, mass concentration, molar concentration, etc.,
while units for liquid-phase composition can include molality, molarity and weight fraction. When composition is used
for the gas phase, it is important to note what the implied
total pressure is. When mole or weight fraction is used for
the liquid phase, it is not always obvious which is meant
from the units of Henry’s constant, since fractions are
dimensionless by convention. If the concentration units
applied for both phases are the same, then the Henry’s constant itself becomes dimensionless. This is unfortunate —
because depending on which units were used, different
dimensionless Henry’s constants, with different values, exist
for the same solute.
Another source of confusion is that some practitioners
(for example, Ref. 20) use Henry’s law in a “solubility”
form, such as Ci = Hi*pi, where Ci is some measure of composition in the liquid phase and Hi* is effectively the reciprocal of the “volatility form” of the Henry’s constant (which
has been used throughout this article). This means that the
Henry’s constant for any solute has two different values,
depending on whether Henry’s law took the solubility form
or the volatility form.
Therefore, two things are imperative. First, those who
report Henry’s constants in the literature (both from original measurements or in compiling data from others) must
be very clear about definitions. Second, those who use
CEP September 2007 www.aiche.org/cep 37 Environmental Management Henry’s constants must pay close attention to be sure they
understand how the numbers they are using were defined.
Conversion among different units for Henry’s constant is
possible, but can be complicated by the need to convert
between mass and molar concentration units. Therefore,
factors such as the molar mass of the solute and the density
of water are employed. Some calculators for this purpose
are available on the Internet (24, 25). When using such
calculators, it is essential to be clear about the definition
associated with each unit, especially dimensionless units.
Finally, note that the expressions given above for estimating the temperature dependence of Henry’s constant
are for the definition of Hi in Eq. 1. A subtle but signifi- cant point is that the ratio Hi(T1)/Hi(T0) is not the same in
all sets of units. In particular, if units of volumetric concentration (such as moles per liter) are used, an additional
temperature dependence is introduced by the variation of
fluid-phase density with temperature. This can be on the
order of 10% for a 30 K change near room temperature
when such units are used for the vapor; the change of liquid density with temperature is usually small enough to
neglect. If one is using Eq. 4 or Eq. 5 with such densitydependent composition units, the preferred procedure is to
convert to the units of Eq. 1, perform the Hi(T) extrapolation in those units, and then convert back to the densitydependent units. Literature Cited
4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
11. 12. 13. 38 Carroll, J. J., “What is Henry’s Law?,” Chem Eng. Progress,
87 (9), pp. 48–52 (Sept. 1991).
Carroll, J. J., “Use Henry’s Law for Multicomponent Mixtures,” Chem Eng. Progress, 88 (8), pp. 53–58 (Aug. 1992).
Carroll, J. J., “Henry’s Law Revisited,” Chem Eng. Progress,
95 (1), pp. 49–56 (Jan. 1999).
Sedlbauer J., et al., “A New Equation for Correlation and
Prediction of Standard Molal Thermodynamic Properties of
Aqueous Species at High Temperatures and Pressures,” Chem.
Geology, 163, pp. 43–63 (2000).
Plyasunov, A. V., et al., “Semi-Empirical Equation of State for
the Infinite Dilution Thermodynamic Functions of Hydration of
Nonelectrolytes Over Wide Ranges of Temperature and
Pressure,” Fluid Phase Equil., 183, pp. 133–142 (2001).
Akinfiev, N. N., and L. W. Diamond, “Thermodynamic
Description of Aqueous Nonelectrolytes at Infinite Dilution
Over a Wide Range of State Parameters,” Geochim.
Cosmochim. Acta, 67, pp. 613–629 (2003).
Shaw, D. G., and A. Maczynski, eds., “IUPAC Solubility
Data Series. 81. Hydrocarbons in Water and Seawater –
Revised and Updated,” published in 12 parts in J. Phys. Chem.
Ref. Data, (2005–2006).
Fernández-Prini, R., et al., “Henry’s Constants and VaporLiquid Distribution Constants for Gaseous Solutes in H2O and
D2O at High Temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 32,
pp. 903–916 (2003).
de Hemptinne, J.-C., et al., “The Henry Constant for 20
Hydrocarbons, CO2 and H2S in Water as a Function of
Pressure and Temperature,” presented at the 14th Symposium
on Thermophysical Properties, Boulder, CO (June 2000).
Cabani, S., et al., “Group Contributions to the Thermodynamic Properties of Non-Ionic Organic Solutes in Dilute
Aqueous Solution,” J. Solution Chem., 10, pp. 563–595 (1981).
Meylan, W. M., and P. H. Howard, “Bond Contribution
Method for Estimating Henry’s Law Constants,” Environ.
Toxicol. Chem., 10, pp. 1283–1293 (1991). The HENRYWIN
software based on this method is available from the
Environmental Protection Agency at www.epa.gov/oppt/
Abraham, M. H., et al., “Hydrogen Bonding. Part 34. The
Factors that Influence the Solubility of Gases and Vapours in
Water at 298 K, and a New Method for Its Determination,”
J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 2, pp. 1777–1791 (1994).
Lin, S.-T, and S. I. Sandler, “Henry’s Law Constant of
Organic Compounds in Water from a Group Contribution
Model with Multipole Corrections,” Chem. Eng. Sci., 57,
pp. 2727–2733 (2002).
www.aiche.org/cep September 2007 CEP 14. Plyasunov, A. V., et al., “Group Contribution Values for the
Thermodynamic Functions of Hydration at 298.15 K, 0.1 MPa.
4. Aliphatic Nitriles and Dinitriles,” J. Chem. Eng. Data, 51,
pp. 1481–1490 (2006), and references therein.
15. Poling, B. E., et al., “The Properties of Gases and Liquids,”
5th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, NY (2001).
16. Jakob, A., et al., “Further Development of Modified UNIFAC
(Dortmund): Revision and Extension 5,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Res.,
45, pp. 7924–7933 (2006). Additional parameters beyond those
published in the open literature are available to members of the
17. Klamt, A., “COSMO-RS: From Quantum Chemistry to Fluid
Phase Thermodynamics and Drug Design,” Elsevier,
Amsterdam, the Netherlands (2005).
18. Hwang, Y.-L., et al., “Steam Stripping for Removal of Organic
Pollutants from Water. 2. Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data,” Ind.
Eng. Chem. Res., 31, pp. 1759–1768 (1992). The article’s supplementary material contains a databank of 404 compounds of
environmental interest and other useful property data.
19. Washington, J. W., “Gas Partitioning of Dissolved Volatile
Organic Compounds in the Vadose Zone: Principles, Temperature Effects and Literature Review,” Ground Water, 34,
pp. 709–718 (1996). Calculations from the method developed
in this article may be accessed at www.epa.gov/athens/
20. Sander, R., “Compilation of Henry’s Law Constants for
Inorganic and Organic Species of Potential Importance in
Environmental Chemistry (Version 3),” available at
www.henrys-law.org (1999). This website lists (without further
evaluation) Henry’s constants collected from the literature for
over 900 volatile substances in water.
21. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “FACT SHEET:
Correcting the Henry’s Law Constant for Soil Temperature,”
available at www.epa.gov/oswer/riskassessment/airmodel/
pdf/factsheet.pdf (2001). This contains a listing of Henry’s constants at 25°C for 93 compounds of interest in soil and groundwater pollution.
22. Snoeyink, V. L., and D. Jenkins, “Water Chemistry,” Wiley,
Hoboken, NJ (1980). (See Chapter 4, “Acid-Base Chemistry,”
especially Table 4.1.)
23. Prausnitz, J. M., et al., “Molecular Thermodynamics of FluidPhase Equilibria,” 3rd ed., Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River,
NJ (1999). (See Section 10.7.)
24. Weaver, J., and C. Owensby, “Henry’s Law Calculator,”
25. Sander, R., “Converting Henry’s Law Constants,” www.mpchmainz.mpg.de/~sander/res/henry-conv.html. Conclusions
It is important to recognize that the Henry’s “constant” is
actually a strong, nonlinear function of temperature. For
accurate design, it is preferable to have temperaturedependent data for Hi(T). Such data can be interpolated with
a simple van’t Hoff equation (such as Eq. 6) over small
temperature ranges or a more complex expression (such as
those in Ref. 8 or Ref. 9) if a larger range is needed; these
correlations can be extrapolated slightly over temperature if
necessary. If temperature-dependent data are not available,
Eq. 5 can be used to extrapolate for modest distances near
ambient temperatures; this can be augmented by the use of
infinite-dilution activity coefficients (Eq. 4), which become
more important at higher temperatures.
Additional pitfalls include failing to distinguish
between the “solubility” and the “volatility” form of
Henry’s law, failing to consider the implications of liquidphase solute partitioning, and failing to be careful about
units of measure, especially dimensionless units. If one
avoids these pitfalls, Henry’s law can be a useful tool in
many engineering applications.
CEP FRANCIS L. SMITH is the principal of Wilcrest Consulting Associates, LLC
(2326 Bristol Band, Katy, TX 77450; Phone: (281) 579-1618; Fax: (413)
714-6660; E-mail: email@example.com). He works as an independent
business and engineering consultant, specializing in chemical, environmental and utility engineering design and optimization, as well as the
application of Value Improving Practices (VIPs) for the optimization of
investment for capital projects. He previously has worked for 15 years with
BASF Corp., Corporate Engineering, as a chemical and environmental
process design engineer, and more recently for five years with Kellogg,
Brown and Root as a chemical process design engineer, and as a VIPs
facilitator. He has a BS and MEngr in chemical engineering from Cornell
Univ., and a PhD in environmental engineering from the Univ. of Cincinnati.
ALLAN H. HARVEY is a chemical engineer with the Physical and Chemical
Properties Div., National Institute of Standards and Technology (325
Broadway, Boulder, CO 80305; Phone: (303 )497-3555; Fax: (303)
497-5224; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). He has been with NIST
since 1994, working in the areas of phase-equilibrium thermodynamics,
properties of humid gases, thermodynamics of dilute solutions, and
properties of water and aqueous systems. Prior to coming to NIST, he
worked for Simulation Sciences, Inc. He has a BS in chemical engineering
from the Univ. of Missouri at Rolla and a PhD in chemical engineering from
the Univ. of California at Berkeley. He is a member of AIChE and ASME. Acknowledgements
The authors thank J. D. Olson, A. V. Plyasunov, R. Sander, and
J. W. Washington for helpful discussions and suggestions. www.aiche.org/cep or Circle No.126
CEP September 2007 www.aiche.org/cep 39 ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/29/2011 for the course CHE 128 taught by Professor Scott,s during the Fall '08 term at UCSB.
- Fall '08