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martin1 - Dynamics of HIV infection Martin Nowak Institute...

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Dynamics of HIV infection Martin Nowak Institute for Advanced Study Princeton
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The basic idea of a virus: ‘Replicate me!’
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RNA DNA RNA DNA Reverse Transcriptase RNA Polymerase ‘Reverse transcribe me! Integrate me! RNA polymerase me!’ The basic idea of a retrovirus:
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The basic idea of a retrovirus: Virus RNA Reverse transcription Provirus DNA mRNA
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HIV is a retrovirus RNA DNA Virion Cell Viral DNA integrates into the host cell genome.
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Images of HIV
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Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) z HIV was discovered in 1984. z Now there are 35 million infected, 15 million dead. z There is anti-viral therapy with problematic side effects. z There is no vaccine.
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Retroviruses z Oncoviruses (HTLV) z Lentiviruses (HIV, SIV, FIV, EIAV, …) z Spumaviruses
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Viruses are opposed by immune responses CD4 B CD8 Antibodies Helper cells Free virus Infected cell help help Killer cells CTL kill kill
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CD8 cell recognition CD8 Infected cell T-cell receptor MHC-I + viral peptide
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CD4 cell recognition CD4 Antigen presenting cell T-cell receptor MHC-II + viral peptide
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HIV kills CD4 cells CD4 B CD8 Antibodies Helper cells Free virus Infected cell HIV Killer cells CTL kill kill
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HIV-1: clinical profile Time Virus CD4 1000 0 Primary phase Asymptomatic phase AIDS <2 to >15 years
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martin1 - Dynamics of HIV infection Martin Nowak Institute...

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