martin2 - Evolutionary origin on HIV zThe closest relatives...

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Evolutionary origin on HIV z The closest relatives of HIV-1 and HIV-2 are simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV). z There is evidence for multiple transmissions from SIV into humans. z HIV-1 is very closely related to SIV from chimpanzees.
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Evolution of virulence z All SIVs appear to be apathogenic in their natural hosts. z SIV can be transferred to other species, where it induces AIDS. z ‘Short-sighted’ evolution of virulence.
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HIV is a quasispecies z Viral replication is error prone. z HIV reverse transcriptase and RNA polymerase have error rates of about 1E-4. z The virus population in any one patient is extremely heterogeneous. z HIV can escape from drug treatment. z HIV can escape from immune responses.
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