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Module 71.Safety (fall prevention, fire, home care safety) a.Fall preventioni.Remove clutterii.Ensure adequate lightingiii.Install handrails in the showeriv.Utilize non-skid socksb.Fire Safetyi.R.A.C.E – rescue, alarm, contain, extinguishii.P.A.C.E – Pull, aim, squeeze, sweepc.Home care safetyi.Poisoning – exposure mainly due to improper storage of itemsii.Carbon Monoxide – Know s/s, usually occurs in cold months, install detectorsiii.Toxins from work environments – dust particles, chemical contact with skiniv.Burns – Scald, Warming, sunburn, contact burn, chemical burnv.Fires – Home oxygen equipment leading cause of firesvi.Suffocation – Mainly infants and chockingvii.Firearms – Educate and keep locked2.Communication, especially with impaired patients: a.hearing aids, sign language, lip-reading, CCb.Speak directly to the patientc.Always knock and announce yourself when entering the room3.GlaucomaIncreased IOP more than 20 mm hg compression of blood vessels and photoreceptors and nerve fibers. Hypoxia-necrosis-loss of vision.Signs and Symptoms: a)Acute angle closurei)Sudden severe pain around the eye radiating over face, Headache or brow pain, nausea, and vomiting. ii)Can also cause seeing colored halos around lights and blurred vision with decreased light perception. b)Open angle: corneal thinness, painless Edu: common in AA, MA, Types: a)Open angle: most common, occurs over time, goes unnoticed because central vision is not usually affected until later. b)Closed angle: **Medical Emergency**Interventions: drug therapy to reduce IOP and patient education, Laser trabeculoplasty, trabeculectomy4.Cataracts (symptoms, signs, education, interventions, surgical interventions, etc)
Opacity of lens of eye that lies behind iris. Most are r/t age. Distorts images.S&S: a)Blurred vision, decreased color perception, may think glasses are smudged, double vision, problem w/ ADL’s, w/o surgical intervention blindness follows, affects reading/drivingb)No pain or eye redness is associated with age-related cataracts formation.Edu: a)Surgery is the only cure for cataractsb)Education how to instill eye dropsc)Education on how to take care of the eyes after cataract surgery interventions: a)Recognition when ADL’s cannot be performed safely/independently, b)Don’t bend @ waist, lift 10+ lbs, sneeze/cough, blow nose, strain, no sex, avoid vomit, no tight shirt collarsSurgical Interventions: Cataract surgery (antibiotic/steroids after surgery)Post-operative and pre-operative care Types: a)Age-related: Lens and water loss and fiber compactionb)Traumatic: Blunt injuries to eye or head, penetrating eye injury, foreign bodies in eye, radiation exposurec)Toxic: corticosteroids, miotic agents, phenothiazine derivativesd)Associated: Diabetes mellitus, hypoparathyroidism, down syndrome, chronic sunlight exposuree)Complicated: Glaucoma, retinal detachment 5.Audition testing: audiometry – determines the type of hearing loss and assists in planning/interventionsModule 81.Healing process stages (Primary, secondary, Tertiary)