26. Hbook on Water Supply and Drainage.pdf.pdf - WATER(WITH HANDBOOK ON SUPPLY AND SPECIAL EMPHASIS DRAINAGE ON PLUMBING HANDBOOK ON SUPPLY AND

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Unformatted text preview: WATER (WITH HANDBOOK ON SUPPLY AND SPECIAL EMPHASIS DRAINAGE ON PLUMBING) HANDBOOK ON SUPPLY AND WATER (WITH SPECIAL BUREAU MANAK EMPHASIS OF DRAINAGE ON INDIAN BHAVAN, 9 BAHADUR SHAH NEW DELHI 110002 PLUMBING) STANDARDS ZAFAR MARG SP 35 : 1987 FIRST PUBLISHED DECEMBER 1987 FIRST REPRINT SEPTEMBER 1993 0 BUREAU OF lNDIAN STANDARDS UDC 628.11.3 (021) ISBN 81-7061-009-5 PRICE Rs 400.00 PRlNTED IN INDIA AT KAPOOR ART PRESS, A 38/3 MAYAPURI, NEW DELHI AND PUBLISHED BY BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS, NEW DELHI I10002 110064 FOREWORD Users of varioua civil engineering codes have been feeling the need for explanatory handbooks and other compilations based on Indian Standards. The need has been further emphasized in view of the publication of the National Building Code of India in 1970 and its implementation. The Expert Group set up in 1972 by the Department of Science and .fechnology, Government of India, carried out in-depth studies in various areas of civil engineering and construction practices. During the preparation of the Fifth Five-Year Plan in 1975, the Group was assigned the task of producing a Science and Technology plan for research, development and extension work in the sector of housing and construction technology. One of the items of this plan was the production of design handbooks, explanatory handbooks and design aids based on the National Building Code and various Indian Standards, and other activities in the promotion of the National Building Code. The Expert Group gave high priority to this item and on the recommendation of the Department of Science and Technology. the Planning Commission approved the following two projects which were assigned to the Bureau of Indian Standards. a) Development programme engineering construction, b) Typification for industrial on and code implementation for building and civil buildings. A Special Committee for lmplemcntation of Science and fechnology Projects (SCIP), consisting of experts connected with different aspects, was set up in 1974 to advise the BIS Directorate Gcneral III identifying the handbooks and for guiding the development of the work. Under the first prqject. the Committee has so far identified subjects for several explanatory handbooks,‘compilations covering appropriate Indian Standards; Codes;Specifications which include the following: Design Aids for Reinforced Concrete to IS : 456-1978 (SP : lh-1980) Explanatory Handbook on Masonry Code (SP : 20-1981) Explanatory Handbook on Codes of Earthquake Engineering (IS : 1893-1975 and IS : 432h-1976) (SP : 22-1982) Handbook on Concrete Mixes (SP : 23-1982) Explanatory Handbook on Indian Standard Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced Concrete (IS : 456-1978) (SP : 24-1983) Handbook on Causes and Prevention of Cracks in Buildings (SP : 25-1984) Summaries of Indian Standards for Building Materials (SP : 21-1983) Handbook on Functional Requirements of Industrial Buildings (SP : 32-1986) Handbook on Timber Engineering (SP : 33-1986) Handbook on Concrete Reinforcement and Detailing (SP : 34-1987) Handbook on Water Supply and Drainage with Special Emphasis on Plumbing (SP : 35-1987) Functional Requirements of Buildings (Other than Industrial Buildings)(SP : 41-1987) Foundation of Buildings Steel Code (IS : X00) Building Construction Practices Hulk Storage Structures in Steel Formwork Fire Safetv Constructibn Safety Practices Tall Buildings Inspection of Different Items of Building Work Loading Code Prefabrication The Handbook on Water Supply and Drainage with Special Emphasis on Plumbing, which is one of the handbooks in the series, deals with the design, construction, maintenance, etc. of all water supply systems and waste water disposal systems with special reference to water supply systems within the premises and waste water collection. transportation and disposal from domestic sanitary appliances. It gives details for design of small individual disposal systems and broad outlines for the design of large scale transportation, treatment and disposal systems for sewage. The Handbook is also intended to give detailed design for the water supply system within a premises and the treatment and disposal of domestic sewage in septic tanks and stabilization ponds in appendices, and charts for the design of all pressure pipes based on Ha7.en and William’s formula as well as for the design of free flow conduits based on Manning’s formula. The Handbook. it is hoped, would provide useful guidance to public health engineers, plumbing engineers and others dealing with the material, design, construction, testing, inspection. etc. of water supply and drainage. The Handbook is based on the draft prepared by Shri T. Durai RaJ, former Deputy Adviser (PHE), Ministry of Works and Housing, Government of India. The draft was circulated for review to the Municipal Corportion of Greater Bombay; Engineer-inChief’s Branch, Army Headquarters, New Delhi; Ministry of Works and Housing, New Delhi: Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay; Delhi Water Supply & Sewerage Disposal IJndertaking, New Delhi; National Environmental Engineering Research Institute, Nagpur; All India Institute of Hygiene & Public Health, Calcutta; Public Health Departement (PWD), Government of Andhra Pradesh; Madras Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board; Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organization, New Delhi; Calcutta Metropolitan Development Authority. Calcutta; College of Military Engineering, Punt; Delhi Development Authority, New Delhi; Engineers India Ltd, New Delhi; Shri Bnlwant Singh; Shri Devendra Singh, Sanitary Consultant and Quantity Surveyor, Bombay; Shri S. G. Deolalikar. Consulting Sanitary Engineer, New Delhi; and their views have been taken into consideration while finalizing the Handbook. CONTENTS Page Section 1 Introduction 1 Section 2 Terminology 5 Section 3 Plumbing Section 4 Hydraulics Section 5 Water 11 and 99 6 Drainage Section 7 Measurement of Water Sanitary Works Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix A B C D E F G 31 Supply Section Appendix 17 Pneumatics Supply, Drainage and 151 Procedure Adopted by the Madras Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board for the Grant of Water Connections for Domestic Consumption and Use 155 Procedure Adopted by the Madras Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board for the Grant of Sewer Connections 156 Rules Regarding Grant of Licence and Service Conditions of Plumbers Followed by the Madras Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board 157 Design of a Water Supply System in the Building of a Four Storeyed Block of Twin Apartments with Water Supply from an Overhead Tank on the Building 159 Typical Design of a Septic Tank Installation Absorption System for the Four Storeyed Twin Apartments with Soil Block of 163 List of Indian Standards Relating Drainage and Sanitation Supply, Solved Examples to Water 164 171 SPECIAL COMMITTEE FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF AND TECHNOLOGY PROJECTS (SCIP) CHAIKMA National SCIENCE N Dr H. C. Visvesvaraya Council for Cement and Building New Delhi Materials KEPHESENTING MEMBERS Shri A. K. Banerjee Metallurgical Ranchi Shri J. D. Chaturvedi Planning Commission, Central Director & Engineering Building Gurnam Singh Ministry of Food Shri U. R. Kurlekar Ministry of Food Dr M. Ramaiah Structural Madras Shri G. S. Rao Shri A. Chakraborty Central Institute & Civil Supplies and Engineering Public (India) Ltd, New Delhi Research Shri Consultants Civil Roorkee (Finance Division) Supplies Research Works (CSIR), Department Centre (CSIR), (CDO), New Delhi (Alternate) Shri T. S. Ratnam Ministry Shri V. Rao Department Shri G. Raman (Member Aiygari $ecrerarv) Bureau of Finance (Bureau of Science of Indian of Public & Technology, Standards, New Delhi Enterprises) New Delhi SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION As in the Original Standard, this Page is Intentionally Left Blank SP : 3S(S&T)-1987 SECTION 1 INTRODUCTlON 1. INTRODUCTION The Bureau of Indian Standards has been preparing several standards on items pertaining to public health engineering through the help of the several sectional committees and sub-committees constituted under the several Division Councils of the Bureau. The subjects are so varied as to come under the scope of the civil engineering, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, structurals and metals, consumer products, etc. The members constituting the committees are drawn from the Government, manufacturers, consumers, etc. The standards pertaining to public health engineering have been formulated at different times and are being revised as and when necessity arises due to changing times and the prevailing practice. However, there was a long felt need for a handbook on water supply and drainage ,with special emphasis on plumbing giving information on all related subjects in a comprehensive and coordinated manner giving references to the existing standards to facilitate quick and practical help. In this process, it has been necessitated to deviate from certain recommendations already made in certain standards, especially the computation of flow in HANDBOOK ON WATER SUPPLY AND DRAINAGE small sized pipes and the unit fixture rate of flow. In the absence of research work in this field in the country, the work done in USA by Hunter has been used, charts prepared for application in this country with the units adopted here regarding possible peak rates of flow in plumbing systems. The Hazen and William’s formula for pressure pipes and Manning’s formula for free flow conduits have been recommended to be adopted in the design of plumbing systems. A number of useful appendices to help the designer have been prepared and added to the Handbook. As this is only a coordinating Handbook, references have to be made to the relevant detailed standards already prepared for detailed design, construction, testing, maintenance, sampling and inspection, and marking. A list of all relevant lndian Standards pertaining to this Handbook has also been appended. The recommendations made in the manuals on water supply and treatment as well as the manual on sewerage and sewage treatment prepared by the Special Committees constituted by the Ministry of Works and Housing, New Delhi, with which the BlS Directorate General was also associated, have been largely followed in the preparation of the Handbook. As in the Original Standard, this Page is Intentionally Left Blank SECTION 2 TERMINOLOGY As in the Original Standard, this Page is Intentionally Left Blank SP : 3S(S&T)-1987 SECTION 2 TERMINOLOGY 2. TERMINOLOGY 2.0 The glossary of terms relating to water supply and sanitation, as given IS : 10446-1983 ‘Glossary of terms for water supply and sanitation’, should be followed in addition to the following items. 2.11 Building (House) Trap ~ A device, fitting or assembly of fittings installed in the building drain to prevent circulation of air between the drainage system of the building and the building sewer. 2.12 Building Sanitary Drain ~- A building drain which conveys sewage but does not convey storm water. 2.1 Authority having Jurisdiction - The authority which has been created by a statute for administering the provisions and which may authorize a committee or an official to act on its behalf; hereinafter called the ‘Authority’. 2.13 Building (Sanitary) Sewer - A building sewer which conveys sewage but does not carry storm water. 2.2 Available Head ~ The head of water available at the point of consideration due to mains’ pressure or overhead tank or any other source of pressure. 2.14 Building which conveys sewage. (Storm) Drain - A building drain storm water but does not convey 2.15 Building which conveys sewage. (Storm) Sewer ~ A building sewer storm water but does not convey 2.3 Approved ~ Accepted an applicable specification accepted as suitable for the procedures and powers of Authority. or acceptable under stated or cited or proposed use under the Administrative 2.4 Backflow Connection - Any whereby backflow can occur. arrangement 2.5 Barrel -That portion of a pipe in which the diameter and wall thickness remain uniform throughout. 2.6 Branch, Interval - A length of soil or waste stack corresponding, in general, to a storey height but in no case less than 2.4 m within which the horizontal branches from one floor or storey of a building are connected to the stack. 2.7 Branch Vent - A vent connecting one or more individual vents with a vent stack or stack vent. 2.8 Building Combined Drain or Sewer-A building drain or sewer which conveys both sewage and storm water. 2.9 Building (House) Drain-That part of the lowest piping of a drainage system which receives the discharge from soil, waste and other drainage pipes inside the walls of the building and conveys it to the building (house) sewer beginning 0.9 m outside the building wall. 2.10 Building (House) Sewer - That part of the horizontal piping of a drainage system which extends from the end of the building drain which receives the discharge of the building drain and conveys it to a public sewer, private sewer, individual sewage disposal system or other point of disposal. Also called house connection. HANDBOOK ON WATER SUPPLY AND DRAINAGE 2.16 Common Vent - A vent connecting at the junction of the two fixture drains and serving as a vent for both fixtures. 2.17 Communication Pipe -The part of the service pipe, extending from the water main up to and including the stop cock, which is under the control of the Authority. 2.18 Consumer-Any person who uses or is supplied water or on whose application such water is supplied by the Authority. 2.19 Consumer’s Pipe-The portion of service pipe used for supply of water and which is not the property of the Authority. 2.20 Continuous Vent - A vertical vent that is a continuation of the drain to which it connects. 2.21 Deep Manhole - A manhole of such depth that an access shaft is required, in addition to the working chamber. 2.22 Degreasing - The process of removing greases and oils from sewage, waste sludge or garbage. 2.23 Depth of manhole - The vertical distance from the top of the manhole cover to the outgoing invert of the main drain channel. 2.24 pipe. Diameter-The nominal diameter of a 2.25 Direct Tap - A tap which is connected to a supply pipe and subject to water pressure from the water main. 7 SP : 35(55&T)-1987 2.26 Downtake system of piping water main. Tap-- A tap connected to a not subject to pressure from the 2.27 Drainage ~- ‘The removal of any liquid by a system constructed for the purpose. 2.28 Dry Vent Any vent that does not carry water or water-borne waste. 2.29 Dwelling provision arranged Unit_ one or mOre rOOmS with for living, sanitary and sleeping facilities for the use of one family. 2.30 Existing Buidling or Use - A building. structure or its use before the commencement of the Code and which does not conform to the Code. 2.31 Fixture Branch ~~~In -a water supply system. the water supply pipe between the fixture supply pipe and the water distributing pipe. 2.32 Fixture Drain ~~The drain from the trap of a fixture to the junction of that drain with an)’ other drain pipe. 2.33 Fixture Supply ~~ A water supply pipe connecting the fixture with the fixture branch. 2.34 Fixture lJnit - A quantity in which the load producing effects on the system of different kinds of plumbing exprrssed on some arbitrarily chosen terms of plumbing fixtures is scale. 2.35 Fixture CJnit Flow Rate-- The total discharge flow in cubic feet per minute of a single fixture which provides the flow rate of that particular plumbing fixture as a unit of flow. Fixtures are rated as multiples of this unit of flow. 2.36 Flooded ~~ A fixture is flooded when the liquid therein rises to the flood level rim or overflows on to the floor. 2.37 Fresh Air Inlet ~-- A connection drainage system to permit the circulation through the system. 2.38 Geyser with a water outlet. to the of air An appliance for heating of water control on the inlet side and free 2.39 Gulley Trap ~~~A fitment with a trap and a screen through which the discharge from an open drain is taken to a sewer. 2.40 Horizontal Branch - A branch drain extending laterally from a soil or a waste stack. leader, house drain or house storm drain with or without vertical sections or branches, which receives the discharge from one or more fixture drains or plain water inlets and conducts it to the soil or waste stack or to the house drain or the house storm drain. 2.41 Horizontal Pipe ~ Any pipe which makes an angle of more than 45” with the vertical. 2.42 House Drain That part of the lowest horizontal piping of a building drainage syste$, 8 including the horizontal branch from the base of a stack connected to the main house drain which receives the discharge from soil, waste or other drainage pipes in th> building and conveys it to the existing lateral, main sewer, cesspool or septic tank. 2.43 House Storm Drain -~ A drain used for conveying rain water, ground water, subsurface water, condensate, C,OOllng Water 0’. shilat’ discharge to the existing lateral or mam sewer. 2.44 Individual Vent ~~ A pipe installed to vent a fixture trap and which cdnnects with the vent system above the fixture served or terminates in the open air. 2.45 Industrial Wastes - Liquid wastes resulting from the processes employed in industrial establishments and are free of faecal matter. 2.46 Junction Pipe ~~ A pipe incorporating or more branches. one 2.47 Leader (Downspout) The water conductor from the roof or gutter drain to the house storm drain or other piping serving as a storm drain including but not limited to a ‘downspout’ or a ‘rain water conductor’. 2.48 Main Sewer ~~ Any sewer maintained by the public authority. owned or 2.49 Minor Repairs ~-The repairing of an existing plumbing fixture, including the replacement of faucets or valves or parts thereof. 2.50 Plinth ~~ The portion of a structure between the surface of the surrounding ground and surface of the floor immediately above the ground. 2.51 Plumbing Fixtures Installed receptacles. devices or appliances which are supplied pith water or which receive or discharge liquids or other liquid-borne wastes with or without discharge into the drainage system with which they may be directly or indirectI\, connected. 2.52 Residual Head ~ The head available at any particular point in the distribution system. 2.53 Return Offset A double offset installed so as to return the pipe to its original alignment. 2.54 Rim---The fixture. unobstructed open edge of a 2.55 Riser ~ A water supply pipe which extends vertically one full storey or more to convey water to branches or fixtures. 2.56 Roof Drain - A drain installed to receive water collecting on the surface of a roof and to discharge it into the leader (downspout). 2.57 Roughing-in -- The installation of all parts of the plumbing system which can be completed prior to the installation of the fixtures. This includes drainage, water supply and vent piping. and the necessary fixture supports. HA&QBpOK ON WATER SUPPLY AND DRAINAGE SP : 35(S&T)-1987 2.58 Sanitary Sewer - A sewer which carries sewage and to which storm, surface and ground waters are not intentionally admitted. 2.76 a) 2.59 Sewer, Branch - A sewer which receives sewage from a relatively small area and discharges into a main sewer. tzter.Sewer, . Building - 2.61 Sewer, Storm Sewer. Building See Buildirig Storm - (House) See Building b) 2.62 Sewer, Combined - A sewer receiving both surface run-off and sewage. 2.63 Sewer, Common-A sewer in which all owners of abutting properties have equal rights. 2.64 Sewer, Main-See Main Sewer. c) 2.65 Sewer, Private - A sewer privately and used by one or more properties. 2.66 Sewer, Sanitary - See Sanitary owned Sewer. 2.67 Sewer, Storm - A sewer which carries storm water and surface water. street wash and other wash waters or drainage but excludes sewage and industrial wastes. 2.68 Soil Waste-The discharge closets, urintils, slop sinks, stable gullies and similar appliances. 2.69 Stack -The vertical s...
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