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Unformatted text preview: WATER
SUPPLY AND SPECIAL EMPHASIS DRAINAGE
ON PLUMBING) HANDBOOK
SUPPLY AND WATER
(WITH SPECIAL BUREAU
MANAK EMPHASIS OF DRAINAGE
ON INDIAN BHAVAN,
NEW DELHI 110002 PLUMBING) STANDARDS
ZAFAR MARG SP 35 : 1987 FIRST PUBLISHED DECEMBER 1987
FIRST REPRINT SEPTEMBER 1993
0 BUREAU OF lNDIAN STANDARDS UDC 628.11.3 (021)
ISBN 81-7061-009-5 PRICE Rs 400.00 PRlNTED
AT KAPOOR ART PRESS, A 38/3 MAYAPURI,
BUREAU OF INDIAN STANDARDS,
NEW DELHI I10002 110064 FOREWORD
Users of varioua civil engineering
codes have been feeling the need for explanatory
and other compilations
based on Indian Standards.
The need has been
further emphasized in view of the publication
of the National Building Code of India in
1970 and its implementation.
The Expert Group set up in 1972 by the Department
Science and .fechnology,
of India, carried out in-depth studies in various
areas of civil engineering and construction
practices. During the preparation
of the Fifth
Five-Year Plan in 1975, the Group was assigned the task of producing a Science and
plan for research, development and extension work in the sector of housing
technology. One of the items of this plan was the production of design
and design aids based on the National Building
Code and various Indian Standards, and other activities in the promotion of the National
Code. The Expert Group gave high priority
to this item and on the
of the Department
of Science and Technology.
approved the following two projects which were assigned to the Bureau of
b) Typification for industrial on
and code implementation for building and civil buildings. A Special Committee
of Science and
(SCIP), consisting of experts connected with different aspects, was set up in 1974 to advise
the BIS Directorate
and for guiding
of the work. Under the first prqject. the Committee
has so far identified
subjects for several explanatory
which include the following:
Design Aids for Reinforced
Concrete to IS : 456-1978 (SP : lh-1980)
on Masonry Code (SP : 20-1981)
on Codes of Earthquake
(IS : 1893-1975 and
IS : 432h-1976) (SP : 22-1982)
on Concrete Mixes (SP : 23-1982)
Handbook on Indian Standard Code of Practice for Plain and Reinforced
Concrete (IS : 456-1978) (SP : 24-1983)
on Causes and Prevention
of Cracks in Buildings (SP : 25-1984)
of Indian Standards
for Building Materials (SP : 21-1983)
Buildings (SP : 32-1986)
on Timber Engineering
(SP : 33-1986)
and Detailing (SP : 34-1987)
Water Supply and Drainage with Special Emphasis on Plumbing
(SP : 35-1987)
of Buildings (Other than Industrial Buildings)(SP
Steel Code (IS : X00)
Hulk Storage Structures
of Different Items of Building Work
on Water Supply and Drainage with Special Emphasis on Plumbing,
which is one of the handbooks
in the series, deals with the design, construction,
etc. of all water supply systems and waste water disposal systems with
special reference to water supply systems within the premises and waste water collection.
and disposal from domestic sanitary appliances. It gives details for design
of small individual
disposal systems and broad outlines for the design of large scale
and disposal systems for sewage. The Handbook
is also intended to give detailed design for the water supply system
within a premises and the treatment and disposal of domestic sewage in septic tanks and
ponds in appendices, and charts for the design of all pressure pipes based on
Ha7.en and William’s formula as well as for the design of free flow conduits based on
it is hoped, would provide useful guidance to public health engineers,
plumbing engineers and others dealing with the material, design, construction,
etc. of water supply and drainage.
is based on the draft prepared by Shri T. Durai RaJ, former Deputy
Adviser (PHE), Ministry of Works and Housing, Government
of India. The draft was
for review to the Municipal
of Greater Bombay; Engineer-inChief’s Branch, Army Headquarters,
New Delhi; Ministry of Works and Housing, New
Delhi Water Supply & Sewerage
New Delhi; National
Nagpur; All India Institute of Hygiene & Public Health, Calcutta;
of Andhra Pradesh; Madras Metropolitan
Health and Environmental
New Delhi; Calcutta Metropolitan
College of Military Engineering,
Punt; Delhi Development
India Ltd, New Delhi; Shri Bnlwant Singh; Shri Devendra Singh,
and Quantity Surveyor, Bombay; Shri S. G. Deolalikar. Consulting
Sanitary Engineer, New Delhi; and their views have been taken into consideration
the Handbook. CONTENTS
Section 1 Introduction 1 Section 2 Terminology 5 Section 3 Plumbing Section 4 Hydraulics Section 5 Water 11
and 99 6 Drainage Section 7 Measurement
Sanitary Works Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix Appendix
Appendix A B C D E F
G 31 Supply Section Appendix 17 Pneumatics Supply, Drainage and
Adopted by the Madras Metropolitan
Supply and Sewerage Board for the Grant of Water
for Domestic Consumption
and Use 155 Procedure
Adopted by the Madras Metropolitan
Supply and Sewerage Board for the Grant of Sewer
Connections 156 Rules Regarding Grant of Licence and Service Conditions
Followed by the Madras Metropolitan
Water Supply and Sewerage Board 157 Design of a Water Supply System in the Building of a
Four Storeyed Block of Twin Apartments
Supply from an Overhead Tank on the Building 159 Typical Design of a Septic Tank Installation
System for the Four Storeyed
Twin Apartments with Soil
163 List of Indian Standards
Drainage and Sanitation Supply, Solved Examples to Water 164
171 SPECIAL COMMITTEE
CHAIKMA National SCIENCE N Dr H. C. Visvesvaraya
Council for Cement and Building
New Delhi Materials KEPHESENTING MEMBERS Shri A. K. Banerjee Metallurgical
Ranchi Shri J. D. Chaturvedi Planning Commission, Central Director & Engineering Building Gurnam Singh Ministry of Food Shri U. R. Kurlekar Ministry of Food Dr M. Ramaiah Structural
Madras Shri G. S. Rao
Shri A. Chakraborty Central Institute & Civil Supplies
and Engineering Public (India) Ltd, New Delhi Research Shri Consultants Civil Roorkee (Finance Division) Supplies Research Works (CSIR), Department Centre (CSIR), (CDO), New Delhi (Alternate) Shri T. S. Ratnam Ministry Shri V. Rao Department Shri G. Raman (Member Aiygari
$ecrerarv) Bureau of Finance (Bureau of Science of Indian of Public & Technology, Standards, New Delhi Enterprises)
New Delhi SECTION 1
INTRODUCTION As in the Original Standard, this Page is Intentionally Left Blank SP : 3S(S&T)-1987 SECTION 1 INTRODUCTlON
1. INTRODUCTION The Bureau
preparing several standards on items pertaining to
public health engineering
through the help of the
several sectional committees and sub-committees
constituted under the several Division Councils of
the Bureau. The subjects are so varied as to come
of the civil engineering,
and metals, consumer
The members constituting
the committees are
etc. The standards
public health engineering have been formulated at
different times and are being revised as and when
necessity arises due to changing times and the
prevailing practice. However, there was a long felt
need for a handbook
on water supply and
,with special emphasis
on all related subjects in a
references to the existing standards to facilitate
quick and practical help. In this process, it has
especially the computation
of flow in HANDBOOK ON WATER SUPPLY AND DRAINAGE small sized pipes and the unit fixture rate of flow.
In the absence of research work in this field in the
country, the work done in USA by Hunter has
been used, charts prepared for application in this
country with the units adopted
possible peak rates of flow in plumbing systems.
The Hazen and William’s formula for pressure
for free flow
conduits have been recommended
to be adopted
in the design of plumbing
of useful appendices
to help the
designer have been prepared and added to the
As this is only a coordinating
references have to be made to the
sampling and inspection, and marking. A list of all relevant lndian Standards
pertaining to this Handbook has also been appended.
made in the manuals on
water supply and treatment as well as the manual
on sewerage and sewage treatment
Ministry of Works and Housing, New Delhi, with
which the BlS Directorate
have been largely followed
of the Handbook. As in the Original Standard, this Page is Intentionally Left Blank SECTION 2
TERMINOLOGY As in the Original Standard, this Page is Intentionally Left Blank SP : 3S(S&T)-1987 SECTION 2 TERMINOLOGY
2. TERMINOLOGY 2.0 The glossary
of terms relating to water
supply and sanitation,
as given IS : 10446-1983
‘Glossary of terms for water supply and sanitation’,
should be followed in addition to the following
items. 2.11 Building (House) Trap ~ A device, fitting
or assembly of fittings installed in the building
drain to prevent circulation
of air between the
drainage system of the building and the building
Drain ~- A building
drain which conveys sewage but does not convey
storm water. 2.1 Authority
Jurisdiction - The
authority which has been created by a statute for
and which may
authorize a committee or an official to act on its
called the ‘Authority’. 2.13 Building
Sewer - A building
sewer which conveys sewage but does not carry
storm water. 2.2 Available
Head ~ The
at the point of consideration
mains’ pressure or overhead tank or any other
source of pressure. 2.14 Building
sewage. (Storm) Drain - A building drain
storm water but does not convey 2.15 Building
sewage. (Storm) Sewer ~ A building sewer
storm water but does not convey 2.3 Approved ~ Accepted
accepted as suitable for the
and powers of
Authority. or acceptable under
stated or cited or
proposed use under
the Administrative 2.4 Backflow
Connection - Any
whereby backflow can occur. arrangement 2.5 Barrel -That
portion of a pipe in which the
and wall thickness
2.6 Branch, Interval - A length of soil or waste
in general, to a storey height
but in no case less than 2.4 m within which the
branches from one floor or storey of a
building are connected
to the stack.
2.7 Branch Vent - A vent connecting
vents with a vent stack or stack
Drain or Sewer-A
or sewer which conveys both
sewage and storm water.
2.9 Building (House) Drain-That
part of the
lowest piping of a drainage system which receives
the discharge from soil, waste and other drainage
pipes inside the walls of the building and conveys
it to the building (house) sewer beginning 0.9 m
outside the building wall.
2.10 Building (House) Sewer - That part of the
piping of a drainage
extends from the end of the building drain which
receives the discharge of the building drain and
it to a public sewer, private sewer,
sewage disposal system or other point
of disposal. Also called house connection.
HANDBOOK ON WATER SUPPLY AND DRAINAGE 2.16 Common Vent - A vent connecting at the
junction of the two fixture drains and serving as a
vent for both fixtures.
part of the
service pipe, extending from the water main up to
and including the stop cock, which is under the
control of the Authority.
person who uses or is
water or on whose application
water is supplied by the Authority.
portion of service
pipe used for supply of water and which is not the
property of the Authority.
2.20 Continuous Vent - A vertical vent that is a
of the drain to which it connects.
2.21 Deep Manhole - A manhole of such depth
that an access shaft is required, in addition to the
2.22 Degreasing - The
greases and oils from sewage, waste sludge or
2.23 Depth of manhole - The vertical distance
from the top of the manhole cover to the outgoing
invert of the main drain channel.
pipe. Diameter-The nominal diameter of a 2.25 Direct Tap - A tap which is connected to a
supply pipe and subject to water pressure from
the water main.
7 SP : 35(55&T)-1987
system of piping
water main. Tap-- A tap connected
not subject to pressure from the 2.27 Drainage ~- ‘The removal of any liquid by a
for the purpose.
2.28 Dry Vent
Any vent that does not carry
water or water-borne
2.29 Dwelling provision
arranged Unit_ one or mOre rOOmS with for living, sanitary and sleeping facilities
for the use of one family. 2.30
Buidling or Use - A building.
structure or its use before the commencement
the Code and which does not conform to the
Branch ~~~In -a
system. the water supply pipe between the fixture
supply pipe and the water distributing
2.32 Fixture Drain ~~The drain from the trap of
a fixture to the junction
of that drain with an)’
other drain pipe.
Supply ~~ A water supply
the fixture with the fixture branch.
2.34 Fixture lJnit - A quantity
which the load producing effects on the
system of different kinds of plumbing
on some arbitrarily
chosen terms of
Rate-- The total
discharge flow in cubic feet per minute of a single
the flow rate of that
fixture as a unit of flow.
Fixtures are rated as multiples of this unit of flow.
2.36 Flooded ~~ A fixture is flooded when the
rises to the flood level rim or
overflows on to the floor.
2.37 Fresh Air Inlet ~-- A connection
drainage system to permit the circulation
through the system.
with a water
outlet. to the
of air An appliance for heating of water
control on the inlet side and free 2.39 Gulley Trap ~~~A fitment with a trap and a
screen through which the discharge from an open
drain is taken to a sewer.
Branch - A branch
laterally from a soil or a waste stack.
leader, house drain or house storm drain with or
receives the discharge from one or more fixture
drains or plain water inlets and conducts it to the
soil or waste stack or to the house drain or the
house storm drain.
2.41 Horizontal Pipe ~ Any pipe which makes
an angle of more than 45” with the vertical.
2.42 House Drain
That part of the lowest
piping of a building drainage syste$,
8 including the horizontal branch from the base of a
to the main house drain which
receives the discharge from soil, waste or other
drainage pipes in th> building and conveys it to
the existing lateral, main sewer, cesspool or septic
2.43 House Storm Drain -~ A drain used for
rain water, ground water, subsurface
C,OOllng Water 0’. shilat’
discharge to the existing lateral or mam sewer.
2.44 Individual Vent ~~ A pipe installed to vent
a fixture trap and which cdnnects with the vent
system above the fixture served or terminates in
the open air.
2.45 Industrial Wastes - Liquid wastes resulting
and are free of faecal matter.
2.46 Junction Pipe ~~ A pipe incorporating
or more branches. one 2.47
from the roof or gutter drain to the
house storm drain or other piping serving as a
but not limited to a
or a ‘rain water conductor’.
Sewer ~~ Any
by the public authority. owned or 2.49 Minor
Repairs ~-The repairing
replacement of faucets or valves or parts thereof.
Plinth ~~ The
of a structure
between the surface of the surrounding
and surface of the floor immediately
devices or appliances
which are supplied pith
water or which receive or discharge liquids or
with or without
discharge into the drainage
system with which
they may be directly or indirectI\, connected.
2.52 Residual Head ~ The head available at any
point in the distribution
2.53 Return Offset
A double offset installed
so as to return the pipe to its original alignment.
fixture. unobstructed open edge of a 2.55 Riser ~ A water supply pipe which extends
vertically one full storey or more to convey water
to branches or fixtures.
2.56 Roof Drain - A drain installed to receive
water collecting on the surface of a roof and to
discharge it into the leader (downspout).
2.57 Roughing-in -- The installation
of all parts
of the plumbing system which can be completed
prior to the installation
of the fixtures.
includes drainage, water supply and vent piping.
and the necessary fixture supports.
HA&QBpOK ON WATER SUPPLY AND DRAINAGE SP : 35(S&T)-1987
2.58 Sanitary Sewer - A sewer which carries
sewage and to which storm, surface and ground
waters are not intentionally
a) 2.59 Sewer, Branch - A sewer which receives
sewage from a relatively small area and discharges
into a main sewer.
. Building - 2.61 Sewer,
Storm Sewer. Building See Buildirig Storm - (House) See Building b) 2.62 Sewer, Combined - A sewer receiving both
surface run-off and sewage.
2.63 Sewer, Common-A
sewer in which all
owners of abutting
properties have equal rights.
2.64 Sewer, Main-See Main Sewer. c) 2.65 Sewer, Private - A sewer privately
and used by one or more properties.
2.66 Sewer, Sanitary - See Sanitary owned Sewer. 2.67 Sewer, Storm - A sewer which carries
storm water and surface water. street wash and
other wash waters or drainage
sewage and industrial
2.68 Soil Waste-The
closets, urintils, slop sinks, stable
gullies and similar appliances.
2.69 Stack -The
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