chapter 12

chapter 12 - Publicity is one type of PR communication:...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
1 ± Publicity is one type of PR communication: messages that spread information about a person, corporation, issue, or policy in various media. Public relations today, however, involves many communication strategies besides publicity. ± Because it involves multiple forms of communication, public relations is difficult to define precisely. It covers a wide array of actions, such as shaping the image of a politician or celebrity, repairing the image of a major corporation, establishing two-way communication between consumers and companies, and molding wartime propaganda. Broadly defined, public relations refers to the entire range of efforts by an individual, an agency, or any organization attempting to reach or persuade audiences. Early Developments in Public Relations ± The first PR practitioners were simply theatrical press agents : those who sought to advance a client’s image through media exposure, primarily via stunts staged for newspapers. The potential of these early PR techniques soon became obvious to business executives and to politicians. ² For instance, press agents were used by people like Daniel Boone, who engineered various land-grab and real estate ventures, and Davy Crockett, who in addition to heroic exploits was also involved in the massacre of Native Americans. ± “Public relations developed in the early part of the twentieth century as a profession which responded to, and helped shape, the public, newly defined as irrational, not reasoning; spectatorial, not participant; consuming, not productive.” ² –Michael Schudson, Discovering the News 1978
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
2 P. T. Barnum, Buffalo Bill, and the Railroads ± The most notorious theatrical agent of the 1800s was Phineas Taylor (P. T.) Barnum, who used gross exaggeration, fraudulent stories, and staged events to secure newspaper coverage for his clients; his American Museum; and, later, his circus. ± From 1883 to 1916, former army scout William F. Cody, who once killed buffalo for the railroads, promoted himself in his “Buffalo Bill’s Wild West and Congress of Rough Riders of the World” traveling show. ± During the 1800s, America’s largest industrial companies, particularly the railroads, also employed press agents to win favor in the court of public opinion. ± In terms of power and influence, companies like Illinois Central and the Pennsylvania Railroad in the late 1800s were comparable to American automakers in the 1950s. Having obtained construction subsidies, the larger rail companies turned their attention to bigger game—lobbying the government to control rates and reduce competition, especially from smaller, aggressive regional lines. ± “Poison Ivy” Lee ± Most nineteenth-century corporations and manufacturers cared little about public sentiment. By the early 1900s, though,
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Page1 / 7

chapter 12 - Publicity is one type of PR communication:...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online