chapter 8 notes

chapter 8 notes - Despite the importance of newspapers in...

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1 ± Despite the importance of newspapers in daily life, in today’s digital age, the industry is losing both papers and readers at an alarming rate. ± Newspapers still garner a substantial portion of the nation’s advertising dollars, but the loss of papers and readers raises significant concerns in a nation where daily news has historically functioned as a watchdog over democratic life. The Evolution of American Newspapers ± Colonial Newspapers and the Partisan Press ² The first newspaper produced in North America was Publick Occurrences, Both Foreign and Domestick , published on September 25, 1690, by Boston printer Benjamin Harris. ± The colonial government objected to Harris’s negative tone regarding British rule, and local ministers were offended by a report that the king of France had had an affair with his son’s wife. The newspaper was banned after one issue.
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2 ± In 1721, also in Boston, James Franklin, the older brother of Benjamin Franklin, started the New England Courant. The Courant established a tradition of running stories that interested ordinary readers rather than printing articles that appealed primarily to business and colonial leaders. ± In 1729, Benjamin Franklin, at age twenty–four, took over the Pennsylvania Gazette and created, according to historians the best of the colonial papers. ± During the colonial period, New York printer John Peter Zenger was arrested for libel. He eventually won his case, which established the precedent that today allows U.S. journalists and citizens to criticize public officials. In this 1734 issue, Zenger’s New–York Weekly Journal reported his own arrest and the burning of the paper by the city’s “Common Hangman.” ² Zenger ultimately won his case in 1735. ² the colonial government, ruled that newspapers had the right to criticize government leaders as long as the reports were true. ² the Zenger decision would later provide a key foundation for the First Amendment to the Constitution—the right of a democratic press to criticize public officials. ± By 1765, about thirty newspapers operated in the American colonies. The first daily paper began in 1784. These papers were of two general types: political and commercial. ² partisan press - an early dominant style of American journalism distinguished by opinion newspapers, which generally argued one political point of view or pushed the plan of the particular party that subsidized the paper. ² The commercial press, on the other hand, served the leaders of commerce, who were interested in economic issues.
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3 The Penny Press Era: Newspapers Become Mass Media ± The Industrial Revolution, spawned the conversion from expensive handmade to inexpensive machine– made paper. ² penny papers
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This note was uploaded on 12/31/2011 for the course MMC 3303 taught by Professor Surisc during the Fall '10 term at FIU.

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chapter 8 notes - Despite the importance of newspapers in...

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