Neonatal Sepsis - Neonatal Sepsis Alicia Pacala RN BSN...

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Neonatal Sepsis Alicia Pacala, RN BSN Prepared for MSN 621 Advanced Pathophysiology (Spring 2006) Alverno College [email protected]
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Welcome !! Instructions on use of Tutorial: To start Tutorial: tutorial Instructions Causes Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Summary What is Neonatal Sepsis? Objectives
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Instructions on how to navigate through tutorial: Click on to go to next slide. Click on to go back to previous slide. Click on to go to main menu. Click on to go back to submenu. (Note: This option will only be available on slides derived from submenus.) Roll mouse over highlighted words to receive definition. Whenever you see click on it to receive more information about that topic. When answering questions: If answer picked is incorrect there will only be one option to return to the question. Click on back button to try question again. When answer is correctly answered you will be able to continue through new content or go back to the question.
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Tutorial Objectives Completing this tutorial will provide the learner with a better understanding of Neonatal Sepsis: * Pathology * Causes * Symptoms * Diagnosis * Treatments What will I learn?
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What is Neonatal Sepsis? Neonatal Sepsis is a term used for a severe infection in newly born infants. It can cause death if not recognized and treated properly. Image used with permission and provided by www.steliz.org/newborn_center.htm
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More facts about Neonatal Sepsis Neonatal Sepsis affects approximately 2 infants per 1000 births with a higher incidence in premature & low birth weight infants [2]. There are two types of Neonatal Sepsis: Early Onset Late Onset * This tutorial will focus primarily on Early Onset Sepsis
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Causes of Neonatal Sepsis The primary causes of Neonatal Sepsis are bacteria, such as Staphylococcus and Group Beta Strep (GBS). Bacteria may be the cause of neonatal sepsis, but neonates are more susceptible to these bacteria for two reasons [3&6]: Immature immune response Genetic predisposition
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What makes a neonate’s immune system immature? Normally an immune system responds to a pathogen in a specific manner, but if there are problems with any element the immune system is unable to function properly [3&6]. Pathogen enters body Neutrophils move in Chemotaxis occurs Opsonization causes phagocytosis Monocytes kill pathogen
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pathogens can enter a neonate’s body in  many ways ! Pathogens can enter through the prenatal , perinatal , and postnatal periods [6]. Prenatal Maternal Substance Abuse Premature Rupture of Membranes (>18 Hours) Maternal Infection Perinatal Microbial Colonization at Birth Maternal Infection Vaginal Exam of Mother Postnatal Invasive Catheters Endotracheal Intubation Exposure to Nosocomial Microorganisms
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Neutrophils: An important cell in  immunity against pathogens   Neonatal neutrophils are deficient in their ability to adhere to vessel walls at site of infection [2&6].
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