Salmonella - Salmonella Praveen Rao Sophia W Riccardi Danielle Birrer Seminar in Nucleic Acids-Spring 2004 Prof Zubay Salmonella • Overview •

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Unformatted text preview: Salmonella Praveen Rao, Sophia W. Riccardi, Danielle Birrer Seminar in Nucleic Acids-Spring 2004 Prof. Zubay Salmonella • Overview • History and Epidemiology • Molecular Biology • Clinical • Weaponization Overview • Salmonella is a rod-shaped, gram-negative, facultative anaerobe in the family Enterobacteriaceae Salmonella Taxonomy • The genus Salmonella is divided into two species, S. enterica and S. bongori (CDC). • Over 2000 strains are grouped into S. enterica. This species is further divided into six subgroups based on host range specificity, which also involves immunoreactivity of three surface antigens, O, H and Vi. • All strains that are pathogenic to humans are in species S. enterica, subgroup 1 (also called enterica). • For example, the correct taxonomic name for the organism that causes typhoid fever is Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica, serovar typhi. The simplified version: Salmonella typhi. • Taxonomy has been revised several times, due to the degree of DNA similarity between genomes. • For example, In the U.S., another legitimate species name for enterica is choleraesuis. Other Facts • Bacterium of 2501 identified strains, as of 2001. Many different diseases are caused by more than 1,400 serotypes of this bacteria genus. • “Salmonella” derived from Dr. Salmon, a U.S. veterinary surgeon, who discovered and isolated the strain enterica or choleraesuis from the intestine of a pig in 1885. • They are ingested orally by contaminated food or water. Refrigeration prevents growth but does not kill bacteria. Heating at 57-60°C or 134-140°F has shown to be effective in killing the bacteria. • Optimal growth: 37°C or 98.6°F Disease-associated facts • “Salmonellosis”: Any of several bacterial infections caused by species of Salmonella, ranging from mild to serious infections. • Two main kinds in humans: enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid) and gastroenteritis (non-typhoidal). • The main feature for S. diseases is the Type III Secretion System, a needle-like multi-protein complex that is associated with transferring toxic proteins to host cells. Principal habitats in different types of Salmonella • Their principal habitat is the intestinal tracts and bloodstream of humans, and in the intestinal tracts of a wide variety of animals. • The WHO groups Salmonella into 3 types: •- Typhoidal (enteric) Salmonella • (example: S. typhi) • ٠ causes typhoid and paratyphoid fever • ٠ restricted to growth in human hosts • ٠ principal habitat is in intestinal tracts and the bloodstream - Nontyphoidal Salmonella (example: S. enteritidis, S. typhimurium) ٠ prevalent in gastrointestinal tracts of a broad range of animals, including mammals, reptiles, birds and insects....
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Salmonella - Salmonella Praveen Rao Sophia W Riccardi Danielle Birrer Seminar in Nucleic Acids-Spring 2004 Prof Zubay Salmonella • Overview •

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