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Lecture2-ia32-intro - Announcements CS 3214 Computer...

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1 CS 3214 Computer Systems Godmar Back Lecture 2 Announcements Exercise 1 due Aug 30 Project 1 due Sep 7 Team Up Now Should now have access to systems lab (McB 124) via keycard Has Unix workstations for you to use Send email to me if it doesn’t work CS 3214 Fall 2011 The following slides are taken with permission from Complete Powerpoint Lecture Notes for Computer Systems: A Programmer's Perspective 2 nd Edition (CS:APP 2e) Randal E. Bryant and David R. O'Hallaron http://csapp.cs.cmu.edu/public/instructors.html PROGRAMS AND DATA Part 1 CS 3214 Fall 2011 Goals Study IA32 architecture and x86_64 64-bit extension – Most widely used Study Assembly Programmer’s View Study C Programmer’s View CS 3214 Fall 2011 Intel x86 Processors: Overview X86 32/IA32 X86 16 8086 286 386 486 Pentium Pentium MMX Architectures Processors MMX X86 64 / EM64t Pentium III Pentium 4 Pentium 4E Pentium 4F Core 2 Duo Core i7 time SSE SSE2 SSE3 SSE4 CS 3214 Fall 2011 Intel x86 Processors, contd. Machine Evolution – 386 1985 0.3M – Pentium 1993 3.1M – Pentium/MMX 1997 4.5M – PentiumPro 1995 6.5M – Pentium III 1999 8.2M – Pentium 4 2001 42M – Core 2 Duo 2006 291M Core 2 Duo – Core i7 2008 731M Added Features – Instructions to support multimedia operations • Parallel operations on 1, 2, and 4-byte data, both integer & FP – Instructions to enable more efficient conditional operations Linux/GCC Evolution – Two major steps: 1) support 32-bit 386. 2) support 64-bit x86-64 CS 3214 Fall 2011
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2 IA64/Itanium Itanium 2001 10M First shot at 64-bit architecture: first called IA64 Radically new instruction set designed for high performance Can run existing IA32 programs • On-board “x86 engine” On board x86 engine Joint project with Hewlett-Packard Itanium 2 2002 221M Big performance boost Itanium 2 Dual-Core 2006 1.7B Itanium has not taken off in marketplace Lack of backward compatibility, no good compiler support, Pentium 4 got too good CS 3214 Fall 2011 x86 Clones: Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) • Historically – AMD has followed just behind Intel – A little bit slower, a lot cheaper • Then – Recruited top circuit designers from Digital Equipment Corp. and other downward trending companies – Built Opteron: tough competitor to Pentium 4 – Developed x86-64, their own extension to 64 bits CS 3214 Fall 2011 Intel’s 64-Bit Story Intel Attempted Radical Shift from IA32 to IA64 Totally different architecture (Itanium) Executes IA32 code only as legacy Performance disappointing AMD Stepped in with Evolutionary Solution x86-64 (now called “AMD64”) Intel Felt Obligated to Focus on IA64 Hard to admit mistake or that AMD is better 2004: Intel Announces EM64T extension to IA32 Extended Memory 64-bit Technology Almost identical to x86-64!
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