Lecture2-ia32-intro

Lecture2-ia32-intro - Announcements CS 3214 Computer...

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1 CS 3214 Computer Systems Godmar Back Lecture 2 Announcements • Exercise 1 due Aug 30 • Project 1 due Sep 7 • Team Up Now • Should now have access to systems lab (McB 124) via keycard – Has Unix workstations for you to use – Send email to me if it doesn’t work CS 3214 Fall 2011 The following slides are taken with permission from Complete Powerpoint Lecture Notes for Computer Systems: A Programmer's Perspective 2 nd Edition (CS:APP 2e) Randal E. Bryant and David R. O'Hallaron http://csapp.cs.cmu.edu/public/instructors.html PROGRAMS AND DATA Part 1 CS 3214 Fall 2011 Goals • Study IA32 architecture and x86_64 64-bit extension – Most widely used Study Assembly Programmer’s View • Study Assembly Programmer’s View • Study C Programmer’s View CS 3214 Fall 2011 Intel x86 Processors: Overview X86 32/IA32 X86 16 8086 286 386 486 Pentium Pentium MMX Architectures Processors MMX X86 64 / EM64t Pentium III Pentium 4 Pentium 4E Pentium 4F Core 2 Duo Core i7 time SSE SSE2 SSE3 SSE4 CS 3214 Fall 2011 Intel x86 Processors, contd. • Machine Evolution – 386 1985 0.3M – Pentium 1993 3.1M – Pentium/MMX 1997 4.5M – PentiumPro 1995 6.5M – Pentium III 1999 8.2M – Pentium 4 2001 42M – Core2Duo 2006 291M – Core i7 2008 731M • Added Features – Instructions to support multimedia operations – Instructions to enable more efficient conditional operations • Linux/GCC Evolution – Two major steps: 1) support 32-bit 386. 2) support 64-bit x86-64 CS 3214 Fall 2011
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2 IA64/Itanium • Itanium 2001 10M – First shot at 64-bit architecture: first called IA64 – Radically new instruction set designed for high performance – Can run existing IA32 programs • On-board “x86 engine” On board x86 engine – Joint project with Hewlett-Packard • Itanium 2 2002 221M – Big performance boost • Itanium 2 Dual-Core 2006 1.7B • Itanium has not taken off in marketplace – Lack of backward compatibility, no good compiler support, Pentium 4 got too good CS 3214 Fall 2011 x86 Clones: Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) • Historically – AMD has followed just behind Intel – A little bit slower, a lot cheaper Then • Then – Recruited top circuit designers from Digital Equipment Corp. and other downward trending companies – Built Opteron: tough competitor to Pentium 4 – Developed x86-64, their own extension to 64 bits CS 3214 Fall 2011 Intel’s 64-Bit Story • Intel Attempted Radical Shift from IA32 to IA64 – Totally different architecture (Itanium) – Executes IA32 code only as legacy – Performance disappointing • AMD Stepped in with Evolutionary Solution – x86-64 (now called “AMD64”) • Intel Felt Obligated to Focus on IA64 – Hard to admit mistake or that AMD is better • 2004: Intel Announces EM64T extension to IA32 – Extended Memory 64-bit Technology – Almost identical to x86-64! • All but low-end x86 processors support x86-64
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This note was uploaded on 12/31/2011 for the course CS 3214 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '11 term at Virginia Tech.

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Lecture2-ia32-intro - Announcements CS 3214 Computer...

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