24%20Hip%20hop - Hip hop Kendra Salois Music 26AC Tuesday,...

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Hip hop Kendra Salois Music 26AC Tuesday, November 20th, 2007 today’s goals This lecture will cover: origins and antecedents of hip hop • hip hop aesthetics • diverse styles and practitioners • hip hop and the music industry Today’s goals Recurring themes: • impact of new technology • changing performance contexts • appropriation and authenticity • relationship between musicians and music industry today’s goals This lecture will not cover: • a year-by-year, song-by-song chronology • hip hop outside the US • hip hop styles of clothing, literature, dance, film… • your favorite artists
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Part I: Origins Origins: South Bronx, NYC, 1970s • 1959: Cross-Bronx expressway construction routed through neighborhoods, demolishing homes and displacing families • “white flight” from poor neighborhoods leaves concentration of people in poverty, a disproportionate number of whom are African-American, Afro-Caribbean, and Latino/a South Bronx, 1970s • De-industrialization and “urban renewal” or “slum clearance” projects contributed to deteriorating living conditions • Some say city’s rent control policies prevented apartment owners from making enough money to reinvest in building maintenance • Others say slumlords preferred to burn buildings for insurance money South Bronx In the 1970s the Cross-Bronx today
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South Bronx, 1970s • Youth have few opportunities within the neighborhood • Educated youth repurpose existing technology for their own uses – Mixers – Pre-recorded music – Lightposts for power in outdoor jams Origins: multicultural traditions • participants in pop culture of the day: funk, soul, disco, salsa, and more • cyclical forms in music were already familiar • Jamaican sound-system culture included roles similar to the deejay and the emcee • some of the style and moves of breakdancing drawn from Latino/a community; also influenced by Brazilian capoeira • graffiti was a popular means of expression in the boroughs since the 1950s “rap” and hip hop • Hip hop refers to the entire culture; “rap” refers to what the emcee does • As a term for a way of talking, “rap” has been around a long time • Linguist Geneva Smitherman: “ any kind of strong, aggressive, highly fluent, powerful talk” • Includes bragging, metaphors, “signifying,” etc. Carla Thomas and Otis Redding, “Tramp” (from King and Queen , 1967) • Exchange • Bragging • Hyperbole • Comic effect
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part II: hip hop aesthetics and stylistic diversity “old school” and “new school” Fuzzy time boundaries: when does “old school” end and “new school” begin? “Old-School”: mid 1970s-mid 1980s • live performance contexts • stylistic coherence: the four elements • Emcees often rhyme in couplets with clear breaks between lines/measures • Time period covers the initial commercial explosion “old school” and “new school” “new-school”: late 1980s-present • encompasses regions, ethnic groups, political
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This note was uploaded on 04/06/2008 for the course MUSIC 26AC taught by Professor Brinner during the Fall '07 term at University of California, Berkeley.

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24%20Hip%20hop - Hip hop Kendra Salois Music 26AC Tuesday,...

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